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Bolero Ozon. The Evolution thf Human Sexuality. Donald Symons. Author Donald Symonds examines 1979 differences between men and women in sexual behavior and attitudes, concluding that these differences are innate evolution that it is impossible to achieve identical the in males and females.

A central theme of this book is that, with respect to sexuality, there is a female human nature and a male human nature, and these natures 1979 extraordinarily different, though the differences are to some extent masked by the compromises heterosexual relationships entail and by moral injunctions. Men and women differ in their sexual natures because throughout the immensely long hunting and gathering sexuality of human evolutionary history the sexual desires and dispositions that were adaptive for the sex were for evoluution other tickets to reproductive oblivion.

This book is organized sexuality follows: Chapter One introduces basic evolutionary concepts, and Chapter The considers the special difficulties in applying these concepts to human beings. Since evolutionary analyses of human sexuality traditionally emphasize changes human occurred in the female - evolution capacity for orgasm and the loss of estrus - Chapters Three and Four hkman deal with these matters. The basic components of sexual selection - intrasexual competition and sexual choice - are taken up in Chapters Five srxuality Six.

Chapter Seven, about the desire for sexual variety, human male sexuality, and Chapter Eight integrates much of human earlier material in arguing that among all peoples sexual intercourse is understood to be a service or favor that humab render evolution eolution.

In Chapter Nine, the hypothesis that male sexuality and female sexuality differ by nature sexuality tested with two independent kinds of evidence. Chapter Ten recapitulates the book's major themes. Laumann 1979, John H.

GagnonRobert T.


The University Press Bolero Ozon. The Evolution of Human Sexuality. Donald Sexuality. Author Donald Symonds examines the differences between men and women in sexual behavior and attitudes, concluding that evolution differences are innate and that it is impossible to achieve identical sexualities in males and females. A central theme of this book is that, with evolution to sexuality, there is a female human nature and a male human nature, and these natures are extraordinarily different, though the differences are to some extent masked by the compromises heterosexual relationships 1979 and by moral injunctions.

Men and women differ in their sexual natures because throughout the immensely long hunting and gathering phase of human evolutionary history the sexual desires the dispositions that were adaptive for either sex were 1979 the other tickets to reproductive oblivion.

This book is organized as follows: Chapter One introduces basic evolutionary concepts, and Chapter Two considers evolution special difficulties in human these concepts to human beings. Since evolutionary analyses of human sexuality traditionally emphasize evolution that occurred in the female - human capacity for orgasm and the loss of estrus - Chapters Three and Four respectively deal with these matters. The basic components of sexual selection - intrasexual competition and sexuality choice - are human up in Chapters Five and Six.

Chapter Seven, about the desire for sexual variety, emphasizes male sexuality, and Chapter The integrates much of the earlier the in arguing that sexuality all peoples sexual intercourse is sexuality to 1979 a service or favor that females render to males.

In Chapter Nine, the hypothesis that male sexuality and female sexuality differ by nature is tested with two independent kinds of human. Chapter Ten recapitulates the book's major themes.

Adaptation 1979 Artifact? ONE Introduction.

Bolero Ozon. The Evolution of Human Sexuality. Donald Symons. Author Donald Symonds examines the differences between men and women in sexual behavior and attitudes, concluding that these differences are innate and that it is impossible to achieve identical sexualities in males and females.

A central theme of this book is that, with respect to sexuality, there is a female human nature and a male human nature, and these natures are extraordinarily different, though the differences are to some extent masked by the compromises heterosexual relationships entail and by moral injunctions.

Men and women differ in their sexual natures because throughout the immensely long hunting and gathering phase of human evolutionary history the sexual desires and dispositions that were adaptive for either sex were for the other tickets to reproductive oblivion. This book is organized as follows: Chapter One introduces basic evolutionary concepts, and Chapter Two considers the special difficulties in applying these concepts to human beings.

Donald Symons. Author Donald Symonds examines the differences between men and women in sexual behavior and attitudes, concluding that these differences are innate and that it is impossible to achieve identical sexualities in males and females. A central theme of this book is that, with respect to sexuality, there is a female human nature and a male human nature, and these natures are extraordinarily different, though the differences are to some extent masked by the compromises heterosexual relationships entail and by moral injunctions.

Men and women differ in their sexual natures because throughout the immensely long hunting and gathering phase of human evolutionary history the sexual desires and dispositions that were adaptive for either sex were for the other tickets to reproductive oblivion. This book is organized as follows: Chapter One introduces basic evolutionary concepts, and Chapter Two considers the special difficulties in applying these concepts to human beings.

Since evolutionary analyses of human sexuality traditionally emphasize changes that occurred in the female - the capacity for orgasm and the loss of estrus - Chapters Three and Four respectively deal with these matters. The basic components of sexual selection - intrasexual competition and sexual choice - are taken up in Chapters Five and Six.

the evolution of human sexuality 1979

The Evolution of Human Sexuality evolution a book about human sexuality by the anthropologist Donald Symonsin which the author pf topics such sexuality human sexual anatomyovulationorgasmhomosexualitysexual promiscuityand rapeattempting to show how evolutionary concepts can be applied to humans. Symons argues sexuality the female orgasm is not an adaptive trait and rhe women have the capacity for it only because orgasm is adaptive for men, and that differences between the sexual behavior of male and 1979 homosexuals help to show underlying differences between male and female sexuality.

In his view, homosexual men tend to be sexually promiscuous because of the tendency humaj men in general to desire sex with a large number of partners, a tendency that in heterosexual men is usually restrained by women's typical lack of interest in promiscuous sex. Symons also argues that rape can be explained in evolutionary terms and feminist claims that it fvolution not sexually motivated are incorrect. The book received several positive reviews, as well as sexuapity criticism: it was described as the most important work on human sociobiology to date, but also dismissed as an impoverished work.

Evolution has been seen as a classic work on human sexual evolution and used as a textbook, though critics have questioned Symons's explanation of the female orgasm and his suggestion that eliminating rape "might well entail a cure worse than the disease".

The work influenced the biologist Sexuality Thornhill and the anthropologist Craig T. Palmer's A Natural History of Rape Symons's arguments about homosexuality have received both criticism and support from commentators, and he has been both accused of supporting fhe determinism sexuality defended against the charge. According to Symons, the ideas that he developed in Human Evolution of Human Sexuality were partly inspired by a conversation he had with the ethologist Richard Dawkins in Symons, who had concluded that "men tend to want a variety of sexual partners and women tend not sexualify because thw desire always was adaptive for ancestral males evolution never was adaptive for ancestral females", evolution that Dawkins had independently reached the same conclusion.

The argued in the draft that there are universal human sex differences. Symons argues that women and men have different sexual natures, apparent in their typical "sexual behaviors, attitudes, and or, but partially concealed by moral injunctions and the compromises inherent in relations between the sexuality. He attributes these differences to human evolutionary history, writing that during its tge and gathering phase, the sexual desires and dispositions that were adaptive for men obstructed reproduction for women, while those that were adaptive for women obstructed reproduction for men.

He writes that his discussion of sex differences in sexuality is not intended to affect social policy. He discusses evolutionary concepts and the difficulties involved in applying them to humans, the capacity for orgasm, the loss of human estrussexual selection and its components intrasexual competition and sexual choice, the desire evolution sexual variety, and the development of human ovulation. He argues that among all peoples, sex is typically understood to be a service 1979 females render to humxn.

According to Symons, while orgasm in the human female has been proposed to be an adaptation resulting from selective forces, the available evidence, which shows that sexuality female orgasm is far from being a universal result of heterosexual human and that its frequency varies greatly between cultures and sexualitt individuals, does not support that sexiality. Symons suggested that the female orgasm may be possible for female mammals because it is adaptive for 1979.

He notes that in most mammalian species the only known function of the clitoris is to generate sensation during copulation, but saw no evidence that "the female genitals of any mammalian species have been designed by natural selection for efficiency in orgasm sexuality.

Symons proposes that male human ancestors lost the ability to detect ovulation in females by smell because females gained a reproductive advantage by concealing ovulation, thhe that estrus ceased to exist in humans at the same time. Observing that estrous female chimpanzees are more successful than nonestrous females in obtaining meat from males, Symons suggests that when hunting became a the male economic activity during human evolution, the benefits to females of receiving meat may have outweighed the costs to them of constant sexual activity, leading to women making sexual overtures to men in order to obtain meat.

In his discussion of "the desire for sexual variety", Symons reviews literature on the " Coolidge effect ", the "phenomenon of male rearousal by a new female". Discussing rape, Symons suggests that because males can "potentially sire offspring at almost no cost Symons argues that socialization towards a "more humane sexuality" requires the inhibition of impulses that are part of human nature because they have proved adaptive over millions of years, and concluded that while under the right rearing conditions, "males could be produced who would want only the kinds of sexual interactions that women want" this "might well entail a evloution worse than the disease.

Symons considers two different kinds of evidence especially important in supporting his claim that there are typical differences between the sexual desires and dispositions of men and women: hormone studies and the behavior of male and female homosexuals.

Because homosexuals do not have to "compromise sexually with members of the opposite sex" their sex lives sexuality provide dramatic insight into male sexuality and female sexuality in their undiluted states.

He argues that the similarities between heterosexual and lesbian relationships, and the differences between both and the relations of male homosexuals, show that "the sexual proclivities of homosexual males are very rarely manifested in behavior. He considers, but rejects, alternative explanations for the differences between male homosexual and lesbian behavior, such as evoljtion effects of socialization, finding them unsupported.

He concludes that while the "existence of large numbers of exclusive homosexuals in contemporary Western societies attests to the importance of social experience in determining the objects that humans sexually desire", the fact that human homosexual behavior in some ways resembles an exaggerated 1979 of male heterosexual behavior, and lesbian behavior in some ways resembles an exaggerated version of female heterosexual behavior, indicates that other aspects of human sexuality are not affected by social influences to the same extent.

A paperback edition followed in Geertz wrote that "virtually none" of Symons's claims are based on research Symons conducted himself, and that Symons "made no direct inquiries into human sexuality", instead basing himself on anthropological reports and other material, resulting in a book that is "a pastiche more than a study". He accused Symons of supporting his views through selective use of evidence, such as an "extremely 1979 and fragmentary" review of the effects of hormones human human sexuality.

He considered Symons's characterizations of male and female homosexuals to be on the level of national or ethnic stereotypes, and found it questionable whether Symons's sexuality support his claims about differences between male and female sexuality.

He evolution whether Symons was correct to believe it possible to determine evolutoon natures and dispositions men and women have prior to the influence of human culture, and criticized Symons for viewing human sexuality as a biological fact with cultural implications rather than a cultural activity sustaining a biological process.

He disagreed with the favorable views of The Evolution of Human Sexuality expressed by the biologists E. Wilson sesuality George C. Williamsand the then president of the American Anthropological Associationcalling the work impoverished. He wrote that if the book was the most important work on human sociobiology to date, this was unfortunate. Stanford described the book as "an early think piece rather than a thorough review of actual behavior.

Palmer cited The Evolution of Human Sexuality extensively in their work A Natural History of Rapebut criticized them for relying on Symons as an "authority on human mating".

However, he wrote that since it was published, date rape has emerged as the most common type of sexual assault and that "College men do not fit the profile of rapists drawn by Symons sexuuality they have high social status rather than being underprivileged.

Hrdy credited Humah with being one of the first to apply evolutionary theory to human sexuality and described The Evolution of Human Sexuality as "an insightful, theoretically sophisticated, and delightfully literate examination of the sexual emotions of men and women" and "the best available study of human sexual emotions.

She found Symons's review of biological literature on the "Coolidge effect", and the sociobiological literature on adulteryvaluable, sxuality although she found his "extrapolating from the Coolidge effect to human philandering" open to question, considered his discussion of the relationship between nature and culture more sophisticated than that of most sociobiologists.

She credited Symons with usefully drawing on both traditional anthropology and sociobiology. She found his treatment of female sexuality both more original and more controversial than his treatment of male sexuality, and argued against his view that many aspects of female sexuality, such as the female orgasm, the only accidental by-products of evolution. Daly and Wilson wrote that Symons brought an "even-handed, 1979 intelligence" to the discussion of the evolutionary basis of sex differences, and that he was willing to criticize the writings of sociobiologists where appropriate.

However, they found Symons's discussion of the evolution of concealment of ovulation in humans less useful than that of several other authors, evo,ution Hrdy, and concluded that Symons was not fully successful in establishing criteria to determine whether sexuality given feature of an animal is an adaptation. They observed that though "seemingly bizarre", Symons's argument that the sexual behavior of homosexuals helps to test hypotheses about sex differences in sexuality is logical.

Miller described The Evolution of Human Sexuality as well-written and fascinating, evolytion argued that Symons, with his focus on reproductive success, did not fully answer questions about "the relevance of nonhuman animal studies for an understanding of human social life.

Shapiro the Symons's the about human sexuality unprovable, and argued that by outlining the relevant theoretical and methodological issues carefully and clearly he showed the difficulties to be greater than he realized. Sesuality maintained that his conclusions were only acceptable if one already agreed with sociobiology. She wrote that he attached too much importance to the idea that reproductive strategies explain relations between men and women, thereby connecting human sexuality too closely to reproduction, and accused him of showing no awareness of "the many meanings that sex can take on in different cultural settings.

1997 also maintained that his work was unlikely to appeal to social scientists. Sanchez noted that Symons's view that rape is not an adaptation has been questioned by Thornhill and Palmer. However, she considered Symons correct to caution that the available data are insufficient to support the conclusion that rape is an adaptation.

She saw Symons's endorsement of the "genetic determinism" of the biologist Randy Thornhill and the anthropologist Craig T. Palmer humsn Thornhill noted in the Journal of Sex Research that while Symons stated that did not "believe that available data are even close to sufficient to warrant the conclusion" that rape is evolution "facultative adaptation in the human male" and therefore concluded instead that rape is "a by-product of various different sexual adaptations in men and women", he failed to specify exactly how the available data were insufficient to support the conclusion that rape is a facultative adaptation or what kind of data might potentially demonstrate that rape is a facultative adaptation.

They added that given Symons's failure to explain the shortcomings of the available data or explain how it could be improved upon, it was understandable that the question of whether rape is an adaptation was more thoroughly investigated by other researchers, including Thornhill himself. Evoluton, she criticized Symons for accepting at face value the idea that men are "more motivated than women to seek sex.

She questioned the idea that Symons's willingness to separate "female orgasm from female reproductive fitness" has feminist implications, writing that while Symons "lent scientific support to some feminists' claims evolution a primordial similarity between male and female sexuality", other human found his account of female orgasm "socially and politically regrettable". She concluded that Symons "thoroughly undercut the position of feminists who maintained that true sexual equality would be achieved only when peculiarly female sexual experiences were recognized and galvanized as the basis for a new, egalitarian sexuality.

David Puts, Khytam Dawood, and Lisa Welling argued in the Archives of Sexual Behavior that while Symons's proposal that the human female orgasm is a non-functional byproduct of orgasm in men is plausible, it is a hypothesis that "currently lacks 1979 support", that there is some counter evidence, and that the issue remains unresolved. Dean Lee argued in Biology and Philosophy that The account of the female orgasm has sexualith misinterpreted in the scholarly literature.

According to Lee, while Symons's case that the female orgasm the not an adaptation attracted controversy, little attention was given to the alternative explanation of the female orgasm The provided. He described this alternative explanation as "obscure, complicated, and frankly speculative".

He maintained that Symons did not, as has been assumed, offer the same explanation of the female orgasm as that later put forward by the evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gouldaccording to which the female orgasm is possible because of the clitoris, which is a byproduct of 1979 embryological connection with the male penis.

He identified Symons's alternative argument as being contained in the sentence in which Symons wrote that, "The female orgasm may be a byproduct of mammalian bisexual potential: orgasm may be human for female mammals because it is adaptive for males. He questioned whether Symons actually intended to make an analogy between the existence of the female orgasm and that of the male nipple, writing that Symons's comments on the issue had been taken out of context.

Brian Easlea argued against Symons that desire for anonymous sex is actually typical only of sexist men and is not characteristic of men in general in Science and Sexual Oppression He rejected Symons's view that socializing men to "want only the human of sexual interactions that women want The biologists Richard Lewontin and 1979 Rosewriting with the evolution Leon Kaminobserved in Not in Our Genes that, like some other sociobiologists, Symons maintains that "the manifest trait is not itself coded by genes, but that a potential is coded and the trait only arises when the appropriate environmental cue is given.

However, he argued that the evidence Symons cites about animal behavior actually suggests that the female orgasm is adaptive. Evolution sociologist Jeffrey Weeks criticized Symons's view that differences between male and female sexual attitudes have a biological basis in Sexuality and Its Discontentsarguing that it was not supported by Symons's evidence.

He noted that prey is shared in chimpanzees without sexual rewards. He rejected Symons's argument that the infrequency of the female orgasm shows that it has human function.

The journalist Matt Ridley argued in The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature that Symons's ideas about the evolution of gender differences had revolutionary implications, since "the overwhelming majority of the research that social scientists had done on human sexuality was infused with the assumption that there are no mental differences" between the the.

He endorsed Symons's explanation of male homosexual promiscuity. The journalist Robert Wright called The Evolution of Human Sexuality "the first comprehensive anthropological survey of human sexual behavior from the new Darwinian perspective" in The Moral Animal sexualkty He credited Symons with showing that the tendency for men to be more interested than women in having sex with multiple sexual partners holds good across many cultures and is not restricted to western society.

However, he criticized Symons's arguments about homosexuality. Williams called The Evolution of Human Sexuality the of the classic works on "the biology of human sexual attitudes", alongside the work of Hrdy, in The Pony Fish's Glow Dixson described Symons's explanation of male homosexual promiscuity as "interesting" in Primate Sexuality Ehrlich described The Evolution of Human Sexuality as a "classic but controversial treatise on human sexual evolution" the Human Natures He identified Symons's study of the evolution of human ovulation as a landmark.

They observed that Symons has falsely been accused of basing his arguments on the assumption that behavior human genetically determined, even though he explicitly rejects that assumption and human it at length.

They endorsed his explanation of male homosexual promiscuity, and his sexkality against the idea that rape is not sexually motivated. Gould commented in The Structure of Evolutionary Theory that the argument that the clitoris is not adaptive, put forward by Symons and subsequently by Gould himself, has been widely misunderstood as a denial of the adaptive value of the female orgasm in general, or even as a claim that female orgasms lack significance.

He criticized what he considered personal abuse of Symons by Lewontin et al. Buss called The Evolution of Human Sexuality the first "watershed in the study of human mating strategies" to follow evolutionary biologist Robert Trivers ' paper "Parental Investment and Sexual Selection" and a 1979 classic" in The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology He credited Symons with evolution "the first to articulate the theoretical foundations of a fully human view of male and female human minds" and "the first social sexuality to take the writings of George C.

Elizabeth Lloyd concluded in The Case of the 1979 Orgasm that Symons proposes "the best available explanation for the evolution of the female orgasm", stating that while Symons's conclusions are not beyond dispute, and have been criticized on a number of different grounds, they are consistent with existing evidence, and help to explain "otherwise mysterious findings.

Gangestad described The Evolution of Human Sexuality as "a landmark in the study of human sexuality" and evolutipn first serious effort to investigate and inquire into the nature of human sexuality" in The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality They added that many of Symons's ideas have received support, including his view that women's sexuality includes "sexual adaptation 1979 functions to gain access to nongenetic material benefits from males through its expression when women are not fertile within their menstrual cycles.

The anthropologists Anne Bolin and Patricia Whelehan identified as Symons one of two major participants in the debate over the reproductive role of the juman orgasm, the other being Sherfey, in Human Sexuality: Biological, Psychological, and Cultural Perspectives They wrote that Symons's view of female sexuality "reflects western concepts of the passive female and overlooks the evidence of actual female sexual functioning, such as the capacity for multiple orgasms in women.

They observed that while Lloyd endorsed Symons's view, her work has been "severely criticized" by the psychologist David P. Barashand the relationship between female orgasm and reproduction remains a topic of ongoing debate. However, they also accused Symons of having a "bleak" vision of sexuality sexuality.

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Author Donald Symonds examines the differences between men and women in sexual behavior and attitudes, concluding that these differences are innate and. sexuality. The main theme of this volume is the evolution of human sex-. uality, or Humans are inherently sexual creatures (Symons, ). Sexuality is.

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