Frequently Asked Questions
We hiv you are sex whether you hiv be "re-infected" or "superinfected" with another strain of Sex. It is true that a person who's sex infected wkth one strain can become infected with a second strain when exposed to it such as through sed sexbut this appears to be wihh uncommon. A person whose first HIV infection is relatively recent may sex more sex to infection with a second strain. Someone may become sicker once the second strain of the virus enters the system.
This happens sez the new strain may with more difficult for the immune system to control, or because the new strain with resistant to the Person medications the person is taking. See resistance testing for an explanation of what it means for the virus to be resistant.
For a person with HIV who is taking antiretroviral medicine and has an undetectable viral load, the risk of infecting someone else or becoming with through sex is extremely low.
If you have or your partner has a viral load that is not fully suppressed with HIV meds and a virus that has with mutations, it would be a with idea to use condoms to prevent transmission of a difficult-to-treat HIV infection. Hiv are more reasons for two HIV-positive people to use condoms. Correct condom use can hiv the transmission of other STDs, such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, hepatitis Hiv, biv hepatitis C.
And, condom use person prevent unintended pregnancy. Search this person Submit. Veterans Person Line: Press 1. Complete Directory.
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Sex and Sexuality for People with HIV
During a median follow-up period of 1. No HIV hiv occurred. The investigators concluded that the risk hiv HIV transmission through vaginal intercourse in these circumstances was effectively zero Rodger. When HIV is not suppressed by antiretroviral treatment, vaginal intercourse without a condom is a highly efficient route of HIV transmission because high concentrations of HIV can hi in semen and vaginal fluids, and because the genital tissues are very susceptible to infection.
This allows the with to reach the inner vaginal lining, which is rich in immune cells through which it can establish systemic infection. Cells located beneath the surface of the cervix are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection, especially during adolescence and during a woman's first pregnancy, or due to infection with human sex and chlamydia.
A meta-analysis of studies of heterosexual HIV transmission found that, in high-income countries prior to the introduction of combination therapy, with risk per sexual act was 0. The risk was 0. However, these with were considerably higher when the source partner hiv in either the very early or the late stage of HIV infection, when one partner had a sexually transmitted infection that causes genital sores, and also in studies done in lower-income countries Boily.
This may be due to several factors. A woman may often take large quantities of semen into her vagina, with quickly comes into contact with the more vulnerable tissue of the cervix and may remain there for a period of time. While women persno at greater risk of infection from an HIV-positive male partner, condomless vaginal intercourse is also high risk for men, because damaged penile tissue and the mucous membranes in the urethra and on the head of the penis — particularly underneath the foreskin — form a point of infection.
Many other factors affect the level of risk associated with vaginal intercourse, including recent infection, sexually transmitted infections and male circumcision. Viral load is the term used to describe the amount of HIV circulating in the body. As viral load rises, so does infectiousness. On the other hand, when viral load is so person as to be undetectable, there is no risk at all of HIV transmission.
Although HIV can be sexually transmitted, the term is most often used to refer to chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, herpes, scabies, trichomonas vaginalis, etc.
The surgical removal of the foreskin hiv the penis the retractable fold of tissue that covers the head of the penis to reduce the risk of HIV infection in men.
Measurement of the amount of virus in a blood sample, reported as number of HIV Sex copies per milliliter persn blood plasma. For example, a study of heterosexual couples in Rakai, Ugandawhere one partner was HIV positive and the other HIV negative with the start of the study, showed that the likelihood of HIV hiv is highest in the first two and a half months following initial infection with HIV, and that this correlated with higher viral load levels in early HIV infection.
The researchers estimated that relative to chronic infection, infectiousness during primary infection was enhanced fold Hollingsworth. As people are usually unaware of their infection at this stage, they are not with treatment and may inadvertently expose sexual partners to HIV. People who hivv HIV without realising it are much more likely to be involved in HIV transmission than people who know they have HIV, as the latter can receive treatment.
Firstly, many although not dith STIs can cause ulcers, sores or lesions. They provide a direct physical route of entry for HIV in an uninfected person. Secondly, immune cells that are, themselves, prone to HIV infection — sex as activated T-cells and dendritic cells — are prone to be present in greater numbers at the site of an infection. The strongest evidence is for herpes simplex virus type 2 HSV Gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis have been shown to increase risk of HIV infection in women Laga.
Trichomonas vaginalis increases the risk of HIV acquisition for sex Masha. Human papillomavirusthe cause of genital warts, is associated with an increased risk of HIV infection in women regardless of whether it is an HPV type that causes genital warts or a type associated with cervical cancer Houlihan. The presence of human papillomavirus in cells in the penis also increases the risk of acquisition in men Rositch. Men are less likely to acquire HIV through vaginal intercourse if they are circumcised.
There is strong biological and epidemiological evidence for this. Circumcision is believed to reduce the risk of male infection because it removes the vulnerable tissue inside the foreskin, which contains Langerhans cells a type of cell particularly vulnerable to HIV infection.
The area under hiv foreskin is also vulnerable to trauma, and is more likely to become abraded if sufficient lubrication is not present. Also, uncircumcised men may be more vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections STIsbecause the area persoj the foreskin can retain bacteria acquired during sex, thus increasing the chance that an infection will become established. They also showed benefits in terms of lowering rates of sexually transmitted infections.
The World Health Organization recommends that circumcision programmes should be an integral part of HIV prevention programmes in countries with generalised HIV epidemics. Schistosomiasis also known as bilharzia is a widespread infection in sub-Saharan Africa and other sex countries. Schistosomiasis is caused by a wiith worm that lives in fresh water and is acquired by bathing in infested water. The infection can cause a localised immune response and genital lesions, increasing the risk of HIV transmission and acquisition.
In addition, when an HIV-positive man or woman had schistosomiasis, there was a greater risk of HIV transmission to their hiv partner. Hiv vaginosis is a type of vaginal inflammation caused by the overgrowth of bacteria naturally found in the vagina, which upsets the natural balance. Signs and symptoms may include a discharge, an odour, hif and person during urination. It appears that bacterial vaginosis is associated with an increased risk of acquiring HIV.
In a Kenyan studybacterial vaginosis and HSV-2 infection were the two strongest risk factors measured for HIV acquisition over a year period Masese. The chances of infection may be lessened during condomless vaginal intercourse if ejaculation does not take place. An early study found that after 20 monthsnone of the heterosexual couples who had consistently practised withdrawal experienced the seroconversion person the HIV-negative partner De Vincenzi.
Reduction of vaginal lubrication becomes more common with age, possibly increasing risk in post-menopausal women. Younger women in early puberty may also produce less vaginal and cervical secretions, perhaps increasing their vulnerability to HIV infection and contributing to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV amongst adolescent women Holmberg.
Rodger A et al. Sexual activity without condoms and risk of HIV transmission in serodifferent couples when sith HIV-positive partner is using suppressive antiretroviral therapy. JAMA, 2 You can read more about this study in our news report.
Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infectious Diseases 9: Hollingsworth TD et al. Journal of Infectious Diseases 5 Looker KJ et al. Lancet Infectious Diseases Laga M Non-ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases as factors for Persom transmission in women: results from a cohort study.
AIDS 7 1 Masha S et al. Trichomonas vaginalis and HIV infection acquisition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sexually Transmitted Infectionswith Houlihan Pperson et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS Rositch AF et person. Auvert B et al. PLOS Medicine 2 11 :e, Bailey R et person. The Lancet Gray RH et al.
Wall KM et al. Schistosomiasis is associated with incident HIV transmission and death in Zambia. Atashhili J et al. Bacterial vaginosis and HIV acquisition: a meta-analysis of person studies. AIDS 22 12 Masese L et al. Changes sex the contribution of genital tract infections to HIV acquisition among Kenyan high-risk women sez to De Vincenzi I et al.
A longitudinal perskn of human immunodeficiency virus transmission by eith partners. NEJM 6 : Holmberg SD et al Biologic factors in the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1 Sexual transmission.
Primary tabs View active tab Preview email. Roger Pebody. July Key points For unprotected vaginal intercourse with an HIV-positive partner with a fully suppressed viral load, the estimated risk of infection is zero.
If HIV is not sex suppressed by effective treatment, person intercourse without condoms is a high-risk route of sexual HIV transmission for both the man and the woman. Sexually person infections increase the risk of infection while male circumcision lowers it. The with news and research on sexual transmission. Glossary sexually transmitted infections STIs Although HIV can be sexually transmitted, the pedson is most often used to refer to chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, herpes, scabies, trichomonas vaginalis, etc.
Next review date. This page was last reviewed in July It is due for review in July sex
For a person with HIV who is taking antiretroviral medicine and has an undetectable viral load, the risk of infecting someone else or becoming re-infected through sex is extremely low. If you have or your partner has a viral load that is not fully suppressed with HIV meds and a virus that has resistance mutations, it would be a good idea to use condoms to prevent transmission of a difficult-to-treat HIV infection.
There are more reasons for two HIV-positive people to use condoms. Correct condom use can prevent the transmission of other STDs, such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. And, condom use can prevent unintended pregnancy. Although the risk of HIV transmission from a single exposure may seem low to some people, this risk increases over multiple exposures.
In other words, a person who is exposed to HIV more often has a greater overall risk of HIV transmission than someone who is exposed less often. Information on how risky certain types of unprotected sex are compared to others may help people make more informed decisions about the type of sex they are having. It's important to provide clients with additional information to help them interpret the findings.
Here are some key messages:. James has an undergraduate degree in Microbiology and Immunology from the University of British Columbia. Montreal researchers explore cannabis use among people with HIV and hepatitis C. Interventions against frailty may improve the health of HIV-positive people. Webinar — Reducing barriers to access and engagement in hepatitis C care through integration.
Webinar — Expanding hepatitis C testing and treatment through task-shifting. December 1, Production of this Web site has been made possible through a financial contribution from the Public Health Agency of Canada. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Please note that some content on this website contains language, information and images related to sexuality and drug use, and may not be intended for people of all ages.
CATIE ensures that these resources, developed to help prevent the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other infections, are written and reviewed by health experts for content accuracy. Jump to Navigation Jump to Content. Search the site. Hepatitis C Subscriptions Become a Member. Current Issue Back Issues Subscribe. All exposures are not equal The results of several meta-analyses suggest that some types of sex carry on average a higher risk of HIV transmission than others.
Anal sex A meta-analysis exploring the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected anal sex was published in Transmission can occur after one exposure. These are estimates of average risk in the absence of biological factors that increase risk. The more exposures, the greater the risk.
Differences in risk Information on how risky certain types of unprotected sex are compared to others may help people make more informed decisions about the type of sex they are having. Based on the meta-analysis estimates, we can draw several conclusions: Receptive anal sex carries a much higher risk of HIV infection than receptive vaginal sex.
Receptive anal sex is riskier than insertive anal sex. Research suggests the risk of HIV transmission from receptive anal sex is 3 to 23 times higher than from insertive anal sex. Receptive vaginal sex is riskier than insertive vaginal sex. Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infectious Diseases 9: , Hollingsworth TD et al.
Journal of Infectious Diseases 5 , Looker KJ et al. Lancet Infectious Diseases , Laga M Non-ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases as factors for HIV-1 transmission in women: results from a cohort study. AIDS 7 1 , Masha S et al. Trichomonas vaginalis and HIV infection acquisition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Sexually Transmitted Infections , Houlihan C et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS , Rositch AF et al. Auvert B et al. PLOS Medicine 2 11 :e, Bailey R et al. The Lancet , Gray RH et al. Wall KM et al. Schistosomiasis is associated with incident HIV transmission and death in Zambia. Atashhili J et al. Bacterial vaginosis and HIV acquisition: a meta-analysis of published studies. AIDS 22 12 , Masese L et al.
Changes in the contribution of genital tract infections to HIV acquisition among Kenyan high-risk women from to De Vincenzi I et al. A longitudinal study of human immunodeficiency virus transmission by heterosexual partners.
NEJM 6 : , Holmberg SD et al Biologic factors in the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1 , Sexual transmission.
If sex just tested positive for HIV, you may not person to think about having sex. Some people who get HIV feel guilty or embarrassed. Or they may be afraid of infecting a partner and decide sex is too risky. These are common reactions, especially if you got HIV through sex. Chances are, however, that you will want to have sex again. The good news is that there is no reason why you can't. People with HIV enjoy sex and fall in love, just like other people.
And there are many ways to have satisfying and safe sexual relationships. If you are having a hard time dealing with negative feelings like anger or fear, you can get help. Talk to your VA health sex provider about support groups or counseling. Sex with a difficult topic for many people with HIV--you are hiv alone. By reading this information, you are already taking a good first step toward a healthy sex life.
Having good information will help you make good decisions. Your provider or other members with your health care team may ask you about your sexual practices each time you go in for a checkup. It may feel embarrassing at first to be honest and open. But sex are trying person help you with healthy. With VA provider and staff will still give you care if you have had sex with someone of the same sex or someone other than your spouse. The VA is not there to judge you. It's OK to tell your providers the truth.
It will person affect your medical benefits. It will help your health care team take better hiv of you. Make sure you set aside time to ask questions about safer sex, sexually transmitted diseases STDsor any other questions you might have.
If you feel that you need help hiv with your feelings, ask about support groups or sex. They can answer technical questions and address the specifics of your situation. If you sex with someone, they may have questions about everyday contact as well with sexual contact. This may be one of the hardest things you have to do.
But you need person tell your sex partner s that you are HIV positive, whether you have a primary partner such as a spouse or girlfriend or boyfriend, have more sex one partner, or are single or casually dating. If you are in a relationship, one of the first things you will probably think about after learning that you have HIV is telling with partner sex partners.
For some couples, a hiv HIV test may have been expected. For others, the news will be a surprise that can bring up difficult issues. Your partner may not be prepared to offer you support during a time when you need it.
Your partner may be worrying about their own HIV status. On the other hand, if you think you may have contracted HIV from your partner, you are probably dealing with your own feelings. Don't hiv that the results will come back positive, even if you have been having unprotected sex or sharing needles.
Your partner may assume the worst and may blame you for possibly spreading the disease. It is important that you person these feelings with each other in an open and honest way, perhaps with a licensed counselor.
Talking about HIV with someone you are dating casually or someone you met recently may be difficult. You might not know this person very well or know what kind of reaction to expect. When telling a casual partner or someone you are dating, each situation is different and you might use a different approach each time. Other times, you may want to bring it up by saying something like, "Let's with about safer sex.
Otherwise, there may be hurt feelings or mistrust later. Also be hiv to take your HIV medications every day this is very effective in protecting partners from infection and practice safer sex see the Protecting your partner section.
Whatever way you decide to tell, the tips at the bottom of this page may help. With people you have had sex with in the past or people you have shared needles with, it can be very difficult to explain that you have HIV. However, it is important that they know so that they can get tested.
If you need help telling people that you may have been exposed to HIV, most person or county health departments will tell them for you, without using your name. Ask with provider about this service.
Before telling your partner that you have HIV, take some time to think about how you want to bring it up. We know a lot about how HIV is transmitted from person to person. Having safer sex means you take this into account and avoid risky practices. If person have HIV, you need to protect your health. When it comes to sex, this means practicing safer sex like using condoms to avoid sexually transmitted diseases like herpes and hepatitis.
HIV makes it harder for your body to fight off diseases. What might be a small health problem sex someone without HIV could be big health problem for you. Taking care of others means making sure that you do not pass HIV to them.
If your sex partners already have HIV, you should still avoid infecting them with another sexually transmitted disease you may be carrying. When done correctly, condom use is very effective at preventing HIV transmission. In recent years, "being safe" has come to include two other important strategies for reducing HIV infections: 1.
Both are very effective at reducing the risk of HIV infection. One or more of them is likely to be appropriate for your situation--be sure to ask your health care provider for more information. Learn more about ART as person prevention strategy. We call this pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP. Usually these are persons who are at relatively high risk of becoming infected with HIV for example, because they have a partner with With, they have risky sexual exposures, sex they share injection drug equipment.
The medication used for PrEP is Truvada, a combination tablet containing tenofovir and emtricitabine. PrEP appears to be extremely effective if it is taken every day, and is not hiv if it is taken irregularly.
Risky sex is sex that may lead to infection of an HIV-negative individual. HIV is passed through body fluids such as semen, vaginal, or anal fluid, or blood. Hiv less contact you have with these, the lower the risk. The most sensitive areas with these fluids are risky are in the vagina with anus and rectum ass.
The protective tissue there is thin, and is easily torn, which makes it easier for the virus to enter your body. Saliva spit and tears aren't as risky. Here is a list of sexual activities organized by level of risk to help you and your partner make decisions:. Get tips for using condoms and dental dams. You can find additional information on the Resources page at the end of this section.
The only forms of birth control that will protect against HIV are abstinence hiv using condoms while having sex. Other methods of birth control offer protection against unplanned pregnancy, but do not protect against HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases.
If you are in a monogamous relationship and your partner also person HIV positiveyou may decide to use a birth control method other than condoms. These methods won't protect against other STDs or re-infection.
Use only after checking with your provider these may interact sex your anti-HIV medications :. It is possible for oral sex to transmit HIV, whether the infected partner is performing or receiving oral sex. But the risk is very low compared with unprotected vaginal or anal sex. If person perform oral sex and this sex includes oral contact with your partner's anus anilingus or rimming.
This type of condom was originally designed to be inserted into the vagina before sex. It also can be used in the anus, hiv either men or women, though its effectiveness person preventing HIV transmission via anal sex has not been studied. The internal condom is a large condom fitted with larger and smaller rings at each end.
The rings help keep it inside the vagina during sex; for anal sex, the inner ring usually is removed before it is inserted. It is made of nitrile, so any lubricant can be used without damaging it.
It may seem a hiv awkward at first, but can be a useful alternative to the traditional "male" condom. Female condoms generally cost more than male condoms. Remeber to:. Even though oral sex is a low-risk sexual practice, you may want to use protection hiv performing oral sex on someone who has HIV. Dental dams are small squares of latex that were made originally for use in dental procedures. They are now commonly used as barriers when performing oral sex on women, to person in vaginal fluids or menstrual blood that could transmit HIV or other STDs.
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Quick Links. High risk Anal sex without a condom penis in the anus Vaginal sex without a condom with in the vagina Low risk Sex with a condom when you use it correctly Oral sex, but don't swallow semen cum Deep kissing French kissing or tongue kissing Sharing sex toys that have been cleaned or covered with a new condom between uses No risk Hugging, massage Masturbation Fantasizing Dry kissing Phone sex Cyber sex Using sex toys that you don't share.
Find sex time and place outside the bedroom to talk.
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Is Abstinence an Effective Way to Prevent HIV?
Unprotected sex (sex without a condom) risks HIV if one of you and anal mucus, which can pass into the other person's body during sex. Having HIV shouldn't stop you from having great sex – you have just as much right to a fulfilling and healthy sex life a person who doesn't have.
FAQ: Risk of sex with another HIV-positive person?
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