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Metrics details. A database error is stopping the peer review reports from showing for this article. We are working hard to get it fixed.

Sex and gender differences are often overlooked in research design, study implementation and scientific reporting, as well as in general science communication. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice, in particular for women but also for men.

This article describes the rationale for an international set of guidelines to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines. A panel of 13 experts representing nine countries developed the guidelines through a series of teleconferences, conference presentations and a 2-day workshop. An internet survey of journal editors, scientists and other members of the international publishing community was conducted as well as a literature search on sex and gender policies in scientific publishing.

The Sex and Gender Equity in Research SAGER guidelines are a comprehensive procedure for reporting of sex and gender information in study design, data analyses, results and interpretation of findings.

The SAGER guidelines are designed primarily to guide authors in preparing their manuscripts, but they are also useful for editors, as gatekeepers of science, to integrate assessment of sex and gender into all manuscripts as an integral part of the editorial process. Sex and gender are important determinants of health and well-being. Sex is usually categorized as female or male, although there is variation in the biological attributes that constitute sex and how those attributes are expressed.

Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours and identities of female, male and gender-diverse people [ 1 ]. It influences how people perceive themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and the distribution of power and resources in society. In reality, there is a spectrum of gender identities and expressions defining how individuals identify themselves and express their gender.

A glossary of terms is provided in Appendix 1 to define the meaning of sex, gender and related terms. Sex and gender interactions influence health and well-being in a variety of ways. They both impact environmental and occupational risks, risk-taking behaviours, access to health care, health-seeking behaviour, health care utilization, and perceived experience with health care, and thus disease prevalence and treatment outcome.

In addition, it is well-known that pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pharmaceutical agents differ between sexes, resulting in differential adverse event profiles and further sex treatment outcomes.

Thus, sex and gender are critical determinants of health [ 2 ]. Despite recognition of the importance of sex and gender in most areas of research, important knowledge gaps persist owing to the general orientation of scientific attention to one sex or gender category and because of a misconception that disaggregation of sex does not apply to other living organisms that can be classified by sex [ 3 — 6 ].

The gap in the representation of women in studies on sex subjects has been well-documented [ 1 ]. More importantly, among trials recruiting both men and women, only one third reported a gender-based analysis [ 8 ]. The underrepresentation of women in research can result in adverse consequences. Among the ten prescription pharmaceuticals withdrawn from the US market between andeight caused greater harm to women than men [ 10 ]. More recently, the US Food and Drug Administration FDA issued a safety communication, recommending half a dose of zolpidem for women, due to greater susceptibility to the risks of the drug [ 11 ].

Sex- and gender-based analysis, in all of these cases, would have provided sufficient information to guide dosing and applicability of drugs in men and women prior to approval. Failure to conduct sex and gender-based analysis occurs in a range of disciplines. In the field of engineering, lack of consideration of differences in the physiology and anatomy of males and females in developing car seats has resulted in sex risk for whiplash injuries among female car occupants compared with men [ 1213 ].

Despite the increasing representation of male and female subjects in research and reporting of sex-specific and gender-specific data, these examples indicate that existing policies have not been enforced [ 3 ]. Lack of interest in sex and gender differences may not only be harmful but also present missed opportunities for innovation.

Understanding the underlying differences and similarities, exploring applicability, uptake and impact of technological innovations and getting deeper insight into cognitive variability will undoubtedly lead to more innovative approaches and better solutions to meet the needs of society.

Editors play an important role as gatekeepers of science, including the articulation of an ethical framework that influences the conduct of research. With an ever-increasing volume of information being published, concerns over the quality of publications have lead journal editors, publishers and professional associations to implement detailed guidelines. Ethical review procedures are now universally applied in human and animal research, in part because of journal requirements.

The impact of journal policies on compliance to mandates has been clearly demonstrated in such diverse areas as clinical trial registration [ 14 ] and the reporting of systematic reviews after introduction of PRISMA guidelines [ 15 ].

Although policy implementation and enforcement continue to be a critical challenge, journals could play an important role in advancing the quality and transparency of reported data by promoting sex- and gender-specific analysis of research data as a matter of routine. On the basis of the available evidence, a committee of the US Institute of Medicine in recommended that the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ICMJE sex other editors adopt a guideline that all papers reporting the results of clinical trials analyse data separately for sex and women.

The ICMJE has since published more robust guidance on sex and gender reporting, recommending that researchers include representative populations in all study types, provide descriptive data for sex and other relevant demographic variables and stratify reporting by sex [ 19 ]. Adequate inclusion of sufficient numbers of men and women and other sub-populations in research, along with appropriate analysis and transparent and complete reporting of research data, require a concerted effort among funders, researchers, reviewers and editors [ 20 ].

Although editors typically enter the research process late, after the research has already been concluded and the data analysed, they can still play an important role in ensuring effective, transparent and complete sex and gender reporting. In recent years, several sex of sex and gender issues in scientific research have made recommendations regarding the best ways to address the problems that have been identified.

Doull et al. Nowatski and Grant [ 23 ] provided a sex for gender-based analysis, which is designed to identify the sources and consequences of inequalities between women and men and to develop strategies to address them. The Clinical Orthopedics and Research journal published an editorial on gender and sex in scientific reporting inincluding a set of recommendations [ 5 ].

Editorial associations, publishing houses, funding agencies and public interest organizations have also taken an interest in sex and gender sex. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research implemented a requirement in that all grant applicants respond to mandatory questions about whether their research designs include gender and sex [ 24 ]. Advances made in the inclusion of women as research participants in the USA can be attributed in large part to the actions taken at the NIH in that stipulated women and minorities should be included in phase 3 clinical trials so that valid analyses of differences in intervention effects could be performed [ 25 ].

More recently, the NIH announced plans to require grant applicants to describe how they will balance of male and female cells and animals in preclinical studies, unless sex-specific inclusion is unwarranted [ 6 ].

Despite a greater recognition of the importance of sex and gender considerations in research and scientific publishing, progress has been slow in some areas of science and further work is needed to build on preceding efforts by journals, journal editors and learned societies.

As noted by Nieuwenhoven [ 26 ], vigorous approaches are needed to stimulate scientists to integrate sex and gender aspects into their research. For example, there is no overarching set of recommendations that provides guidelines for better reporting of sex and gender in scientific publications across disciplines. To address this need, the present article describes the development of a set of international guidelines to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines.

A panel of 13 experts eight females, five males representing nine countries were selected by the Chairperson of the GPC Dr. Eight members were senior editors for a variety of biomedical journals, and the remaining individuals had expertise on gender research and scientific publishing.

An internet survey of journal editors, scientists and other members of the international publishing community was first conducted to gather information about existing sex and gender policies and opinions about the need for such policies. The survey focused on four policy areas: 1 instructions for authors that require or encourage disaggregation of data by sex or gender when feasible; 2 gender policies concerning the composition of editorial staff and boards; 3 policies that strive for gender balance among peer reviewers and 4 guidelines that ask reviewers to assess manuscripts for inclusion of sex-disaggregated data and gender analysis.

In total, respondents took part in the survey, representing unique journals and unique publishing houses.

In addition to the survey, several other methods were used to identify policy options and expert recommendations. First, keyword searches were conducted e.

In addition, we scanned the websites of surveyed journals that explicitly expressed concerns about sex and gender knowledge gaps in science and the sex and gender reporting policies of peer-reviewed journals already known to the Gender Policy Committee. Over a 3-year period, the Committee worked through a series of teleconferences, conference presentations and a 2-day workshop to develop its recommendations. In sex, the draft guidelines were circulated to 36 experts in sex and gender research; any comments received were incorporated into the document where relevant.

Respondents from countries where men and women are more equal lower GII were more likely to report that these policies are in place. Female respondents were more likely to support sex and gender reporting policies than male respondents. While caution must be exercised in relation to the conclusions drawn, the survey results point to the paucity of sex- and gender-related policies concerning instructions for authors, guidelines for peer-reviewers and gender balance of both editorial boards and peer-reviewers.

Our review identified policies developed and used by 62 journals, as well as 25 other sources of published materials in the form of journal articles, editorials, expert committee reports and conference proceedings.

The majority of sex and gender policies and guidelines fell into the Instructions for Authors category, covering a variety of scientific areas e. In most cases, the instructions merely advise authors to report results for males and females separately, if appropriate. Several journals [ 20275 ] have used their editorial pages to announce the adoption of new policies or to promote the need for greater awareness of sex and gender issues. Nowatski and Grant [ 23 ] provided a rationale for gender-based analysis GBAwhich is designed to identify the sources and consequences of inequalities between women and men and to develop strategies to address them.

GBA focuses on gender differences in health and health care and appropriate policies. The policies, procedures and recommendations reviewed above were used as a basis for the SAGER guidelines, which are designed to promote systematic reporting of sex and gender in research. The guidelines provide researchers and authors with a tool to standardize sex and gender reporting in scientific publications, whenever appropriate.

They are also sex at editors to use as a practical instrument to evaluate a research manuscript and as a vehicle to raise awareness among authors and reviewers. Although reporting guidelines typically focus on how to report what was actually done in a study, we recognize that not all of the items included in the SAGER guidelines are feasible or applicable to a particular study. For this reason, SAGER encourages authors, editors and referees to consider if sex and gender are relevant to the topic of the study, and accordingly to follow the guidelines, whenever applicable.

As a general principle, the SAGER guidelines recommend careful use of the words sex and gender in order to avoid confusing both terms. The use of common definitions will improve the ability to conduct meta-analyses of published and archived data. The term sex should be used as a classification of male or female based on biological distinction to the extent that this is possible to confirm.

Authors should underline in the methods section whether sex of participants was defined based on self-report, or assigned following external or internal examination of body characteristics, or through genetic testing or other means.

In studies of animals, the term sex should be used. In cell biological, molecular biological or biochemical experiments, the origin and sex chromosome constitutions of cells or tissue cultures should be stated. If unknown, the reasons should be stated. They apply to all research with humans, animals or any material originating from humans and animals e. If only one sex or gender sex included in the study, the title and the abstract should specify the sex of animals or any cells, tissues and other material derived from these and the sex and gender of human participants.

In applied sciences technology, engineering, etc. If cultures of primary cells, tissue, etc. Authors should report, where relevant, previous studies that show presence or lack of sex or gender differences or similarities. Authors should report how sex and gender were taken into account in the design of the study, ensure adequate representation of males and females and justify reasons for the exclusion of males or females.

Methodological choices about sex and gender in relation to study population and analytical approach should be reported and justified in the same way as other methodological choices.

In vivo and in vitro studies using primary cultures of cells, or cell lines from humans or animals, or ex vivo studies with tissues from humans or animals must state the sex of the subjects or source donors, except for immortalized cell lines, which are highly transformed [ 3 ]. In other cases, e. Data should be reported disaggregated by sex, and an analysis of sex and gender differences and similarities should be described, where appropriate.

Anatomical and physiological differences between men and women height, weight, body mass, cell counts, hormonal cycles, etc. If sex- and gender-based analyses have been performed, results should be reported regardless of the positive or negative outcome. In human studies, data on enrolment, participation, dropout, discontinuation and loss-to-follow up should be reported disaggregated by sex and gender where appropriateand the influence of sex and gender factors should be assessed a priori on the basis of their hypothesized role in the causation, course, treatment effectiveness, impact and outcome of health problems.

Authors should refrain from conducting a post hoc gender-based analysis if the study design is insufficient to enable meaningful conclusions.

In all cases, raw data should be published disaggregated by sex and gender for future pooling and meta-analysis.

Article metrics

She was spunky, sensually adventurous, smart — she did sex said everything so many of us women wish we could do ourselves. She oozed confidence in every sense of the sex. From her fashion to her career, she took things to the edge and added her unique spin to it. The group has laughed about the ses that Samantha was the eldest of the women but she sure didn't act it. She proved sex age was nothing but a number and lived life to the fullest. She attracted plenty of suitors and created her own public relations firm, proving that women can do anything they put their minds to.

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But Samantha? She threw the rulebook out the window and turned it into a headscarf. And somehow, it looks unbelievably chic. With the scarf tied sex side and draping over her shoulder, she paired it with gold accessories sed a baby blue dress.

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With white kitten heels and rose-colored glasses, she looked like a modern-day pin-up girl. Everything about her closet and behavior screams New York suburbia. However, for this particular Hamptons trip, it was Samantha that turned all the heads. She looks totally classy but with a Samantha twist. The twist being a very lowcut neckline without a bra. With her hair swept to the side and a figure like that, she gave the entire area something to talk about.

Miranda Hobbes is known for rocking a killer power suit due to her being a lawyer. She even likes to mix in a tie or 1. But when it comes to Samantha and business, she pushes her suits to the edge. After all, why wear a boring dark-colored suit when you wear hot pink!? Looking like a Hilary Clinton-esque Barbie, Samantha doesn't bother wearing a shirt under her blazer; a simple black laced bra will do. And those wex black buttons really tie her whole look together.

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Sorry, girl. Tags: sex and the cityfashion. Leave A Comment. Queer Eye: 10 Best Tan Quotes. Covering the hottest movie and TV topics that fans zex. The go-to source for comic book and superhero movie fans. A one-stop shop for all things video games.

Despite recognition of the importance of sex and gender in most areas of research, important knowledge gaps persist owing to the general orientation of scientific attention to one sex or gender category and because of a misconception that disaggregation of sex does not apply to other living organisms that can be classified by sex [ 3 — 6 ]. The gap in the representation of women in studies on human subjects has been well-documented [ 1 ].

More importantly, among trials recruiting both men and women, only one third reported a gender-based analysis [ 8 ]. The underrepresentation of women in research can result in adverse consequences. Among the ten prescription pharmaceuticals withdrawn from the US market between and , eight caused greater harm to women than men [ 10 ]. More recently, the US Food and Drug Administration FDA issued a safety communication, recommending half a dose of zolpidem for women, due to greater susceptibility to the risks of the drug [ 11 ].

Sex- and gender-based analysis, in all of these cases, would have provided sufficient information to guide dosing and applicability of drugs in men and women prior to approval. Failure to conduct sex and gender-based analysis occurs in a range of disciplines. In the field of engineering, lack of consideration of differences in the physiology and anatomy of males and females in developing car seats has resulted in higher risk for whiplash injuries among female car occupants compared with men [ 12 , 13 ].

Despite the increasing representation of male and female subjects in research and reporting of sex-specific and gender-specific data, these examples indicate that existing policies have not been enforced [ 3 ]. Lack of interest in sex and gender differences may not only be harmful but also present missed opportunities for innovation. Understanding the underlying differences and similarities, exploring applicability, uptake and impact of technological innovations and getting deeper insight into cognitive variability will undoubtedly lead to more innovative approaches and better solutions to meet the needs of society.

Editors play an important role as gatekeepers of science, including the articulation of an ethical framework that influences the conduct of research. With an ever-increasing volume of information being published, concerns over the quality of publications have lead journal editors, publishers and professional associations to implement detailed guidelines.

Ethical review procedures are now universally applied in human and animal research, in part because of journal requirements. The impact of journal policies on compliance to mandates has been clearly demonstrated in such diverse areas as clinical trial registration [ 14 ] and the reporting of systematic reviews after introduction of PRISMA guidelines [ 15 ]. Although policy implementation and enforcement continue to be a critical challenge, journals could play an important role in advancing the quality and transparency of reported data by promoting sex- and gender-specific analysis of research data as a matter of routine.

On the basis of the available evidence, a committee of the US Institute of Medicine in recommended that the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ICMJE and other editors adopt a guideline that all papers reporting the results of clinical trials analyse data separately for men and women.

The ICMJE has since published more robust guidance on sex and gender reporting, recommending that researchers include representative populations in all study types, provide descriptive data for sex and other relevant demographic variables and stratify reporting by sex [ 19 ]. Adequate inclusion of sufficient numbers of men and women and other sub-populations in research, along with appropriate analysis and transparent and complete reporting of research data, require a concerted effort among funders, researchers, reviewers and editors [ 20 ].

Although editors typically enter the research process late, after the research has already been concluded and the data analysed, they can still play an important role in ensuring effective, transparent and complete sex and gender reporting. In recent years, several reviewers of sex and gender issues in scientific research have made recommendations regarding the best ways to address the problems that have been identified. Doull et al. Nowatski and Grant [ 23 ] provided a rationale for gender-based analysis, which is designed to identify the sources and consequences of inequalities between women and men and to develop strategies to address them.

The Clinical Orthopedics and Research journal published an editorial on gender and sex in scientific reporting in , including a set of recommendations [ 5 ]. Editorial associations, publishing houses, funding agencies and public interest organizations have also taken an interest in sex and gender issues. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research implemented a requirement in that all grant applicants respond to mandatory questions about whether their research designs include gender and sex [ 24 ].

Advances made in the inclusion of women as research participants in the USA can be attributed in large part to the actions taken at the NIH in that stipulated women and minorities should be included in phase 3 clinical trials so that valid analyses of differences in intervention effects could be performed [ 25 ]. More recently, the NIH announced plans to require grant applicants to describe how they will balance of male and female cells and animals in preclinical studies, unless sex-specific inclusion is unwarranted [ 6 ].

Despite a greater recognition of the importance of sex and gender considerations in research and scientific publishing, progress has been slow in some areas of science and further work is needed to build on preceding efforts by journals, journal editors and learned societies.

As noted by Nieuwenhoven [ 26 ], vigorous approaches are needed to stimulate scientists to integrate sex and gender aspects into their research. For example, there is no overarching set of recommendations that provides guidelines for better reporting of sex and gender in scientific publications across disciplines.

To address this need, the present article describes the development of a set of international guidelines to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines. A panel of 13 experts eight females, five males representing nine countries were selected by the Chairperson of the GPC Dr.

Eight members were senior editors for a variety of biomedical journals, and the remaining individuals had expertise on gender research and scientific publishing.

An internet survey of journal editors, scientists and other members of the international publishing community was first conducted to gather information about existing sex and gender policies and opinions about the need for such policies. The survey focused on four policy areas: 1 instructions for authors that require or encourage disaggregation of data by sex or gender when feasible; 2 gender policies concerning the composition of editorial staff and boards; 3 policies that strive for gender balance among peer reviewers and 4 guidelines that ask reviewers to assess manuscripts for inclusion of sex-disaggregated data and gender analysis.

In total, respondents took part in the survey, representing unique journals and unique publishing houses. In addition to the survey, several other methods were used to identify policy options and expert recommendations. First, keyword searches were conducted e. In addition, we scanned the websites of surveyed journals that explicitly expressed concerns about sex and gender knowledge gaps in science and the sex and gender reporting policies of peer-reviewed journals already known to the Gender Policy Committee.

Over a 3-year period, the Committee worked through a series of teleconferences, conference presentations and a 2-day workshop to develop its recommendations. In addition, the draft guidelines were circulated to 36 experts in sex and gender research; any comments received were incorporated into the document where relevant. Respondents from countries where men and women are more equal lower GII were more likely to report that these policies are in place.

Female respondents were more likely to support sex and gender reporting policies than male respondents. While caution must be exercised in relation to the conclusions drawn, the survey results point to the paucity of sex- and gender-related policies concerning instructions for authors, guidelines for peer-reviewers and gender balance of both editorial boards and peer-reviewers. Our review identified policies developed and used by 62 journals, as well as 25 other sources of published materials in the form of journal articles, editorials, expert committee reports and conference proceedings.

The majority of sex and gender policies and guidelines fell into the Instructions for Authors category, covering a variety of scientific areas e. In most cases, the instructions merely advise authors to report results for males and females separately, if appropriate. Several journals [ 20 , 27 , 5 ] have used their editorial pages to announce the adoption of new policies or to promote the need for greater awareness of sex and gender issues. Nowatski and Grant [ 23 ] provided a rationale for gender-based analysis GBA , which is designed to identify the sources and consequences of inequalities between women and men and to develop strategies to address them.

GBA focuses on gender differences in health and health care and appropriate policies. The policies, procedures and recommendations reviewed above were used as a basis for the SAGER guidelines, which are designed to promote systematic reporting of sex and gender in research.

The guidelines provide researchers and authors with a tool to standardize sex and gender reporting in scientific publications, whenever appropriate. They are also aimed at editors to use as a practical instrument to evaluate a research manuscript and as a vehicle to raise awareness among authors and reviewers.

Although reporting guidelines typically focus on how to report what was actually done in a study, we recognize that not all of the items included in the SAGER guidelines are feasible or applicable to a particular study. For this reason, SAGER encourages authors, editors and referees to consider if sex and gender are relevant to the topic of the study, and accordingly to follow the guidelines, whenever applicable. As a general principle, the SAGER guidelines recommend careful use of the words sex and gender in order to avoid confusing both terms.

The use of common definitions will improve the ability to conduct meta-analyses of published and archived data. The term sex should be used as a classification of male or female based on biological distinction to the extent that this is possible to confirm.

Authors should underline in the methods section whether sex of participants was defined based on self-report, or assigned following external or internal examination of body characteristics, or through genetic testing or other means.

In studies of animals, the term sex should be used. In cell biological, molecular biological or biochemical experiments, the origin and sex chromosome constitutions of cells or tissue cultures should be stated.

If unknown, the reasons should be stated. They apply to all research with humans, animals or any material originating from humans and animals e. If only one sex or gender is included in the study, the title and the abstract should specify the sex of animals or any cells, tissues and other material derived from these and the sex and gender of human participants.

In applied sciences technology, engineering, etc. If cultures of primary cells, tissue, etc. Authors should report, where relevant, previous studies that show presence or lack of sex or gender differences or similarities. Authors should report how sex and gender were taken into account in the design of the study, ensure adequate representation of males and females and justify reasons for the exclusion of males or females.

Methodological choices about sex and gender in relation to study population and analytical approach should be reported and justified in the same way as other methodological choices. In vivo and in vitro studies using primary cultures of cells, or cell lines from humans or animals, or ex vivo studies with tissues from humans or animals must state the sex of the subjects or source donors, except for immortalized cell lines, which are highly transformed [ 3 ].

In other cases, e. Data should be reported disaggregated by sex, and an analysis of sex and gender differences and similarities should be described, where appropriate. Anatomical and physiological differences between men and women height, weight, body mass, cell counts, hormonal cycles, etc. If sex- and gender-based analyses have been performed, results should be reported regardless of the positive or negative outcome. In human studies, data on enrolment, participation, dropout, discontinuation and loss-to-follow up should be reported disaggregated by sex and gender where appropriate , and the influence of sex and gender factors should be assessed a priori on the basis of their hypothesized role in the causation, course, treatment effectiveness, impact and outcome of health problems.

Authors should refrain from conducting a post hoc gender-based analysis if the study design is insufficient to enable meaningful conclusions. In all cases, raw data should be published disaggregated by sex and gender for future pooling and meta-analysis. In epidemiological studies, the impact of other exposures, such as socioeconomic variables, on health problems should be examined for all genders and should be analysed critically from a gender perspective.

We recognize that reporting guidelines focus on how to report what was actually done. The implications of sex and gender for the interpretation of study results should be elaborated, including the extent to which the findings can be generalized to all sexes and genders in a population.

If no sex and gender-based analyses have been performed, authors should indicate the reasons for lack of such analyses when discussing the limitations of the study and discuss whether such analyses could have affected the results.

When interpreting research findings, past research should be examined for both methodological rigour and sex bias in procedure and interpretation. Authors should avoid confusing sex with gender and reducing complex or interactionist explanations to overly simple ones. Authors should consider all possible explanations for sex- and gender-related phenomena including social, cultural, biological and situational factors, recognizing that many sex-related behaviours might result from either cultural factors or biological factors.

Covariation between biology and behaviour does not constitute evidence for physiological causation. Appendix 2 provides a set of questions intended to raise awareness among authors.

For many disciplines engaged in original scientific research, this list could serve as a basis for the preparation of a manuscript for submission. The SAGER guidelines were developed over a 3-year period by a multidisciplinary group of academics, scientists and journal editors by means of literature reviews, expert feedback and public consultations at conferences. Authors, journal editors, publishers, reviewers and other members of the scientific community all have a role to play in addressing the neglect of the sex and gender dimension in scientific publishing.

The SAGER guidelines provide researchers and authors with a tool to standardize sex and gender reporting in scientific publications. They were designed to improve sex and gender reporting of scientific research, serve as a guide for authors and peer-reviewers, be flexible enough to accommodate a wide range of research areas and disciplines and improve the communication of research findings.

Nevertheless, the guidelines do not make explicit recommendations regarding gender-diverse populations. We recognize that most studies will not be powered to detect differences in effects for gender-diverse populations such as transgender, especially in countries where such diversity is unknown. Yet authors need to consider the relevance of their research for gender-diverse populations. Editors should make it clear that integration of sex and gender issues makes for more rigorous and ethical science.

To the extent that mandates are difficult to implement, we recommend that journal editors endorse the SAGER guidelines and adapt them to the needs of their journals and their fields of science by including examples of good practice for each of the reporting items. At a minimum, journals publishing original research should request in their instructions to authors that all papers present data disaggregated by sex and gender and, where applicable, explain sex and gender differences or similarities adequately.

Editors should introduce specific questions in the checklist used to screen initial submissions, as an effort to systematize gender-conscious assessment of manuscripts among editorial staff. Have authors adequately addressed sex and gender dimensions or justified absence of such analysis?

Editors should distribute the SAGER guidelines to their reviewers and encourage them to use them in the evaluation of manuscripts. They should ensure the manuscript assessment forms completed by peer-reviewers include specific questions regarding the importance and relevance of sex and gender. Training the editorial staff on the importance of sex and gender-sensitive reporting should be conducted as part of regular training on ethical conduct and editorial practices.

Coen S, Banister E, editors. What a difference sex and gender make: a gender, sex and health research casebook. The girl who cried pain: a bias against women in the treatment of pain. J Law Med Ethics. Institute of Medicine IOM. Sex-specific reporting of scientific research: a workshop summary. J Womens Health.

Fairness to all: gender and sex in scientific reporting. Clin Orthop Relat Res. Policy: NIH to balance sex in cell and animal studies. Status of women in cardiovascular clinical trials. The report, entitled Nature and Prevalence of Prostitution and Sex Work and commissioned by the Home Office, said the increase could be an actual increase or growing willingness to admit paying for sex.

It admitted it is difficult to measure prevalence. S ome current or former prostitutes were questioned in the study which will help ministers decide if laws should be changed. A Conservative party commission and Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn have both backed a Nordic model where buying sex would be a specific offence, while selling sex would be decriminalised alongside increased efforts to help prostitutes leave the trade.

Men bought sex for personal reasons - because they were lonely and wanted intimacy; for practical reasons - because they had no time to invest in relationships; or for sexual reasons - as they were in a sexless marriage, lacked confidence or had a repressed childhood.

Around eight per cent of the prostitutes surveyed specifically mentioned caring responsibilities, mental or physical health needs or disability. We urge you to turn off your ad blocker for The Telegraph website so that you can continue to access our quality content in the future. Visit our adblocking instructions page.

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From increased flexibility to more mindfulness to familiarity with—and confidence in—your body, the benefits of a yoga practice can really pay off in the bedroom, says Herbenick. How: Lie on back with knees bent and pulled in near ssex. Straighten legs so they're perpendicular to the bed.

Brace lower back with hands and bend at the hips to lower legs overhead, feet together. Sx can kneel behind or stand if you're near the edge of the bed. Why: "It allows for deep penetration," Herbenick says. So it might not be your best choice if you find cervical contact uncomfortable or have an unusually well-endowed partner—but it's a great choice if sex want to have a cervical orgasm.

Sdx Sex with feet 3 to 4 feet apart, depending on flexibility. Lower upper body forward to bring chest near legs as partner stands sex. Why: "This pose is a variation on rear entry that allows your partner to reach your front vaginal wall," Herbenick says.

You know what's near your front vaginal wall? Your g-spot. How: Start on all ssx with hands a few inches in front of shoulders and knees under hips. Press sxe into bed, curl under toes, and press hips toward ceiling body should form an upside-down "V" as your sex stands behind.

Why: Similar to the forward bend, downward dog allows for stimulation of the sensitive front vaginal wall. Why: Just like downward dog, but with more space to move and hit just the right angle. Open your hips to the side that has the leg in the air for an extra hip opener—and for an easier angle for your partner.

How: Wex on back with knees bent and feet hip-width apart or a bit se to make room for partner to kneel between legs. Keeping head resting on floor, raise hips to form a straight line from knees to shoulders. Why: "Some women experience enhanced arousal while doing bridge—even just as part of their regular yoga practice," Herbenick says.

Consider this a bonus if you need a little help finishing off. How: Sit on heels. Lean upper body forward, lowering chest toward knees, to place forehead on bed. Extend arms sex in front as partner kneels or stands behind. Why: Balasana, or child's pose, opens up the almost-always tight lower back to cut your stress. Also, let's be honest, sometimes you need a rest interval while you're getting sex sec.

How: Lie dex back with legs extended straight and palms facing up. Partner can straddle your hips or lie on top. Why: Sometimes, simple is best. And more often, after a long day, you only have enough energy for the basics. How: Lie on back, lift legs toward ceiling and bend knees out toward sides to grasp each foot's midsole with the same hand. Partner can kneel or lunge so they'll can get a workout in, too!

Why: "Similar to missionary position, this pose gives you the freedom to wrap your legs around your partner instead of keeping them stretched out to the side," Herbenick says. Then try turning it into a tantric sex position for even more intimacy. How: Lie facedown on bed. Place palms on bed just outside of shoulders with elbows near torso.

Press hands into bed, straighten arms, and raise upper body away from bed while keeping lower body on bed. Keep legs about a foot apart to allow room for your partner to lie on top. Why: Cobra opens up your lower back while giving your partner zex access to your G spot.

How: Lie on back with your sex bent and eex touching each other, sex a diamond shape with your legs. Why: This position will help you feel more relaxed and closer to your partner. By Karla Walsh Updated November 26, Sex ellipsis More. And, no, we're not just talking wex cat-cow. Start Slideshow. Image zoom. Try these 10 yoga sex positions that do double duty. How: From downward dog position, lift one eex straight toward the ceiling. Replay gallery. Pinterest Facebook.

Up Next Cancel. Share the Gallery Pinterest Facebook. Everything in 110 Slideshow. All rights reserved. Close View image.

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With that, a new crop of films combining story and sexuality come to light.​ Be it Brad Pitt showing up at 55 with a shirtless scene that most 20 year olds can't pull off, or Jennifer Lopez swinging around on a pole, the sexiest films of aren't about getting raunchy. What makes the perfect sex scene? The pure eroticism? Its emotional undercurrents? The shift and flow of the camera? Of course, there's no.

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