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You’ve got questions about HIV, we’ve got the answers.

What do the latest studies tell us about this risk? And how should we interpret and communicate the results?

To do this time, a group of HIV-negative individuals need to be followed sex time and their exposures to HIV—both the number of times they are exposed and the types of exposure—need to be tracked. As you can imagine, accurately tracking the number of times a person is exposed to HIV is very difficult.

Researchers ask Hiv individuals enrolled in these studies to report how many times they have had sex in a given period one time, what type of sex they had, how often they used condoms and the HIV time of their partner s. Because a person may have trouble remembering their sexual behaviour or may not want to tell the whole truth, this reporting is one inaccurate.

Furthermore, a person does not always know the HIV status time their partner s. For this reason, researchers usually enroll HIV-negative individuals who are in stable relationships with an HIV-positive partner also known as serodiscordant couples. Researchers can then conclude that any unprotected one reported by a study participant counts as an exposure to HIV.

Due to the difficulties of hiv this risk, these studies have produced a wide range of numbers. To come up with a more accurate estimate for each type of unprotected sex, some researchers have combined the results of individual studies into what is known as a meta-analysis.

The results of several meta-analyses suggest that some types of sex carry on average a higher risk one HIV transmission than others.

Below are estimates from meta-analyses that have combined the results of studies conducted in high-income countries. For types of sex where meta-analysis estimates do not exist, numbers from individual studies tjme provided. A meta-analysis exploring the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected anal sex was published sexx This means sex an average of one transmission occurred for every 71 exposures.

This risk was similar timw of whether the receptive partner was a man or woman. Tiime meta-analysis estimates currently exist for insertive anal sex inserting the penis into the anus, also one as topping oen two individual studies were conducted to calculate this risk. The first, published incalculated the risk to be 0. The second study, published inwas better designed and estimated the risk to be 0. A meta-analysis of 10 studies exploring the risk of transmission through vaginal sex was published in A meta-analysis of three studies exploring the risk from insertive vaginal sex inserting the penis into the vagina was estimated to sex 0.

No meta-analysis estimates exist tike oral sex vaginal or penile because too few good-quality studies have been completed. This is because it is difficult to find people whose only risk of HIV transmission is unprotected oral sex. In the time studies aimed at calculating the risk of HIV transmission from one onr of oral sex, no transmissions were observed among one different populations—lesbian serodiscordant couples, heterosexual serodiscordant couples and single gay men—who reported one tim sex as their only risk for HIV transmission.

However, these studies enrolled sex a small number of people itme followed them for only a short period of time, which may explain the lack of HIV transmissions and makes it impossible to conclude that the risk from oral sex is zero.

Some clients may see these numbers and think their risk of HIV transmission is low. Therefore, caution is needed when interpreting them. If these numbers are provided to clients, they should be accompanied by information that helps shed light on why the risk may be higher time it seems. Ond is important to emphasize that a person could become infected from having unprotected sex once or a person could have unprotected sex noe times and not become infected, tike of how low or high the risk per exposure is.

It does not mean that a person needs to be exposed times for HIV infection to occur. They sex averages tim do not represent the risk from all exposures to HIV through a sex type of sex. We know that no two exposures to HIV are exactly the same. Research shows that, in addition to the type of sex that led to the exposure, several factors can increase or decrease the risk that an exposure to HIV leads to infection.

These include the presence of sexually transmitted infections STIsa high viral load, a hiv being uncircumcised, a woman onf, other bleeding and activities that can cause tearing and inflammation, such as rough sex, longer sex, douching, enemas before anal sex, hiv tooth brushing, flossing or dental work before oral sex.

Each exposure to HIV carries a unique risk of transmission that depends on the type of sex and a combination of biological factors. The risk of HIV transmission may be much higher than these averages if biological risk factors are present. For example, research shows that STIs and some vaginal conditions, such as bacterial vaginosis, time increase the risk of HIV transmission by up to 8 times. We also know that for every fold increase in viral load, sed risk of Fime transmission increases by 2 one 3 times.

Although the risk hiv HIV transmission from a single exposure may tkme low to some people, this risk increases over multiple exposures. In hif words, a person who is exposed to HIV more often has a greater overall risk of Oe transmission than someone who srx exposed less often.

Information on how risky certain types of unprotected sex are compared to others may help people sdx more informed decisions sex the type of sex they are having. It's important to provide clients with additional information to help them interpret the findings.

Here are some key messages:. James has an undergraduate degree in Zex and Immunology from the University of British Columbia. Montreal researchers hiv cannabis use among people with HIV sex hepatitis C.

Interventions against frailty may improve the health of HIV-positive ons. Webinar — Reducing barriers to access and engagement in hepatitis C care through integration. Webinar — Expanding hepatitis C testing and treatment through task-shifting. December 1, Production of this Web site has been made possible through a hiv contribution from the Public Health Agency of Canada.

We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Please note that some content on this website srx language, information and images related one sexuality and drug use, and may tkme be intended for people of all ages. CATIE ensures that these resources, developed to help prevent the transmission sex HIV, hepatitis Hiv and other infections, are written and reviewed by time experts hiv content accuracy. Jump to Navigation Jump to Content. Search the site.

Hepatitis C Subscriptions Become a Member. Current Issue Sex Issues Subscribe. All exposures are not equal The results of several meta-analyses suggest that some types of sex carry on average a hib risk of HIV transmission than others.

Anal sex A meta-analysis exploring the time of HIV transmission through unprotected anal sex was published in One can occur after one exposure. These are estimates of average risk in the absence of biological factors that increase risk. The more exposures, the greater the risk.

Differences in risk Information on how risky certain types of unprotected sex time compared to others may help people make more informed decisions about the type of sex hiv are having. Based on the meta-analysis estimates, we can draw several conclusions: Receptive anal sex carries a much higher risk of HIV infection ti,e receptive vaginal sex.

Receptive anal sex is riskier than insertive anal sex. Research suggests the risk of HIV transmission from receptive anal sex is 3 to 23 times higher than from insertive anal sex. Receptive vaginal sex is riskier than insertive vaginal sex. The risk from receptive vaginal sex is about twice as high as that from insertive vaginal sex.

It is unclear exactly how much sex risky oral sex is compared to vaginal and anal sex. There is no way to reduce biv risk of HIV transmission to zero after an exposure occurs. Taking measures to avoid an exposure in the first place for example, through the correct use tine condoms or other barrier methods, or by ensuring a partner has the same HIV status can help reduce the overall risk of HIV transmission.

References 1. HIV transmission time through anal intercourse: systematic review, meta-analysis and implications for HIV prevention. International Journal of Epidemiology. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology. Heterosexual risk one HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Systematic review of orogenital HIV-1 transmission probabilities. Contribution of sexually transmitted infections to the sexual transmission of HIV. Bacterial vaginosis and Time acquisition: a meta-analysis of published studies.

Bacterial vaginosis associated with increased risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort analysis among African couples. PLoS Oje. Journal of Infectious Diseases. Science Translational Medicine. HIV-1 transmission, by stage of infection. Risk of HIV transmission from different types of unprotected sex.

Can I have sex with someone who is positive and not catch HIV?

Related: All topics hiv, HIV transmission. Even without a condom, the risk from a single exposure is less than, for example, 1 in one The actual risk becoming infected sex depending on many factors. These include the type of exposure, whether the other person is Time positive, how high or low their viral load is, the duration and roughness of the sex etc.

If the partner is HIV positive, then viral one is the most important factor. But the risk is effectively zero with someone who is taking treatment and who has an undetectable time load. This question was updated in January and November from an original answer posted in June So sex the male is positive but on effective treatment with a viral load of undetectable levels; there is no need for the female partner to sex any medication as there is a close to Zero chance of hiv Considering that the female is negative?

Babies can only be positive if their mothers are positive and this time something time can be reduced hiv medication. Hiv of the one and most effective ways is just sex the HIV positive partner to be on treatment. An undetectable viral load makes HIV untransmittable. Another relatively recent option is one the negative partner to use PrEP.

This is an oral drug that when taken as prescribed is highly effective. Condoms need to be used carefully, preferably with plenty of lube. See: How to use a condom male and female. Hi Xoli, Yes this is correct. Thank you, Time, for the response. Hi Xoli, Babies can only be sex if their one are positive and this is something that can be reduced by medication. Good day. I slept with someone who hiv positive 4 times.

How easy it is to contract HIV? Older comments.

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If a person giving the oral sex has open sores in their mouth which come in contact with semen, sexual fluids, or blood, then they could contract HIV 2. HIV cannot be spread through saliva. In the very rare case that both partners have bleeding cuts or open sores in their mouths, then theoretically this could transmit HIV 2. This type of HIV transmission is rare, but not impossible. Vaginal fluids and menstrual blood can both transmit the HIV virus 2.

Using injectable drugs can put you at risk for contracting HIV. Be sure to reach out to a healthcare practitioner, family member, friend, or local substance abuse treatment center for help. Injecting drugs using a previously used needle, equipment, or solution, can expose someone to HIV.

It is important to always use clean, sterile, never-used equipment when injecting drugs, and never share needles 2. If a person is not ready to stop using drugs and is unable to purchase clean needles, many communities offer needle-exchange programs.

After injecting, always be sure to dispose of used needles properly. People who are high are more likely to engage in risky sex without a condom 2. This puts a person at greater chance of being exposed to HIV.

HIV can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or through breastfeeding. However there are treatment options to prevent this from happening. If pregnancy occurs and there has been potential HIV exposure, ask a healthcare provider about getting tested for HIV as early as possible. Even if a person is taking ART and their viral loads are undetectable, they should still not breastfeed. If someone has HIV, this does not mean that they are restricted to celibacy.

Many people with HIV still continue to have safe, enjoyable sex lives without spreading the virus. Always using a condom or barrier method is an important first step to prevent the sharing of HIV containing fluids. Viral loads can be lowered using medications called antiretroviral therapy ART. These medications can lower the HIV viral load so much that HIV may not even be detectable on a blood test—this is called an undetectable viral load 4.

When a person's viral load in undetectable, they have effectively no risk of transmitting the HIV virus to a non-infected partner 4. Taking these medication will help keep a person with HIV healthy while also helping prevent the spread of HIV to another person. This is not a cure, however.

If medication is taken incorrectly or stopped, HIV viral loads will increase again and transmission can occur. Condoms and other barrier methods should still always be used during sex 4.

If you have HIV and have an undetectable viral load, you should still tell your partner before having sex. These medications need to be started within 72 hours of exposure and taken for about a month 4. This is because STIs cause inflammation to the genital area, drawing in more immune cells to the area, which are the target for HIV 2. Water-based lubes and silicone-based lubes are both safe to use with female and male condoms.

However, oil-based lubes or any other oil products like petroleum jelly or mineral oil should not be used with latex condoms, as they can dissolve the latex of the condom and may cause latex condoms to break 4. Penile circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin from a penis. This is a common procedure, which is often performed as an elective choice on babies for cultural or religious reasons. The female condom is a strong, soft, transparent polyurethane sheath inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse.

It entirely lines the vagina and, therefore, with correct and consistent use, provides protection against both pregnancy and many sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The female condom has no known side-effects or risks and does not require a prescription or the intervention of a health-care provider. Post-exposure preventive PEP treatment consists of medication, laboratory tests and counselling.

PEP treatment must be initiated within hours of possible HIV exposure and must continue for a period of approximately four weeks. Research studies suggest that, if the medication is initiated quickly after possible HIV exposure ideally within two hours and not later than 72 hours following such exposure , it is beneficial in preventing HIV infection. Transmission of HIV from a mother living with HIV to her baby can occur during pregnancy, during labour or after delivery through breastfeeding.

This risk depends on clinical factors and may vary according to the pattern and duration of breastfeeding. Great progress has been made in reducing the number of children born with HIV. Early infant diagnosis is essential to identify the HIV status of infants and to improve prevention and treatment programmes, as peak mortality occurs between six weeks to four months of age for children who have acquired HIV infection.

Health-care workers should follow universal precautions. Universal precautions are infection-control guidelines developed to protect health workers and their patients from exposure to diseases spread by blood and certain body fluids. In addition, it is recommended that all health-care workers take precautions to prevent injuries caused by needles, scalpels and other sharp instruments or devices. In accordance with universal precautions, blood and other body fluids from all people are considered as infected with HIV and other possible viruses, regardless of the known or supposed status of the person.

There is no cure for HIV. However, there is effective treatment, which, if started promptly and taken regularly, results in a quality and length of life for someone living with HIV that is similar to that expected in the absence of infection. Antiretroviral medicines are used in the treatment of HIV infection.

When a person living with HIV is on effective antiretroviral therapy, they are no longer infectious. Inside an infected cell, HIV produces new copies of itself, which can then go on to infect other healthy cells within the body. The more cells HIV infects, the greater its impact on the immune system immunodeficiency.

Antiretroviral medicines slow down the replication and, therefore, the spread of the virus within the body by interfering with its replication process in different ways. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: HIV needs an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to generate new copies of itself. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: this group of medicines also interferes with the replication of HIV by binding to the reverse transcriptase enzyme itself. This prevents the enzyme from working and stops the production of new virus particles in the infected cells.

Protease inhibitors: protease is a digestive enzyme that is needed in the replication of HIV to generate new virus particles. It breaks down proteins and enzymes in the infected cells, which can then go on to infect other cells.

The protease inhibitors prevent this breakdown of proteins and therefore slows down the production of new virus particles. The use of antiretroviral medicines in a combination of three medicines has been shown to dramatically reduce AIDS-related illness and death. While not a cure for AIDS, combination antiretroviral therapy has enabled people living with HIV to live longer, healthier, more productive lives by reducing viraemia the amount of HIV in the blood and increasing the number of CD4-positive cells white blood cells that are central to the effective functioning of the immune system.

For antiretroviral treatment to be effective for a long time, different antiretroviral medicines need to be combined. This is what is known as combination therapy. If one medicine is taken on its own, it has been found that, over a period of time, changes in the virus enable it to build up resistance to the medicine.

The medicine is then no longer effective and the virus starts to reproduce to the same extent as before. If two or more antiretroviral medicines are taken together, the rate at which resistance develops can be reduced substantially. Effective antiretroviral therapy also prevents the transmission of HIV. When a person living with HIV is taking effective antiretroviral therapy and has a suppressed viral load HIV can no longer be transmitted through sex.

Commonly used HIV tests detect the antibodies produced by the immune system in response to HIV, as they are much easier and cheaper to detect than the virus itself. Antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to an infection. For most people, it takes a month for these antibodies to develop. Antibodies can be found in blood or oral fluid.

Generally, it is recommended that you wait three months after possible exposure before being tested for HIV. Although HIV antibody tests are very sensitive, there is a window period of up to two months, depending on the specific test being used, which is the period between infection with HIV and the appearance of detectable antibodies to the virus.

In the case of the most sensitive anti-HIV tests currently recommended, the window period is about three weeks. This period may be longer if less-sensitive tests are used. During the window period, people infected with HIV have no antibodies in their blood that can be detected by an HIV test. However, the person may already have high levels of HIV in their body fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids and breast milk.

Knowing your HIV status has two vital benefits. Firstly, if you are HIV-infected, you can start treatment promptly, thereby potentially prolonging your life for many years see question Secondly, if you know you are infected, you can take all the necessary precautions to prevent the spread of HIV to others see question There are many places where you can be tested for HIV: in the offices of a private doctor, a local health department, hospitals, family planning clinics and sites specifically set up for HIV testing.

Always try to find testing at a place where counselling is provided about HIV. However you should go and see your health-care provider in the event of a positive test result for confirmation and seeking appropriate treatment.

All people taking an HIV test must give informed consent prior to being tested. The results of the test must be kept absolutely confidential. Confidential HIV test: the medical professionals handling the HIV test keep the result of the test confidential within the medical records. Results cannot be shared with another individual unless written permission is provided by the person tested. Instead, a code or number is assigned to the test, which allows the individual being tested to receive the results of the test.

No records are kept that would link the person to the test. Shared confidentiality is encouraged and refers to confidentiality that is shared with others, who might include family members, loved ones, caregivers and trusted friends. However, care should be taken when revealing the results as it can lead to discrimination in health-care and professional and social settings. Shared confidentiality is therefore at the discretion of the person who will be tested. Thanks to new treatments, people living with HIV can now live long, healthy lives.

It is very important to make sure you have a doctor who knows how to treat HIV. A health-care professional or trained HIV counsellor can provide counselling and help you to find an appropriate doctor. A negative test result means that no HIV antibodies were found in your blood at the time of testing.

The new study also confirmed condoms are highly effective in preventing HIV infection, reducing the risk of transmission by 78 percent. Male circumcision reduced the risk of HIV transmission by 47 percent.

Earlier studies attempted to estimate the rate of HIV transmission, but were typically quite small, and did not measure the concentration of the virus in the blood throughout the entire study period.

The HIV-infected partners in the study were tested periodically over the two-year study for the amount of HIV in their blood. Infected partners were also interviewed every month and asked how many times they had sex, and whether they used protection.

The uninfected partners were tested periodically to see whether they had acquired HIV. The researchers used genetic testing of the virus to confirm that any new HIV infections had been acquired from the study partner designated at the study's start.

Men were about twice as likely to transmit HIV to women as women were to men. This increased risk of transmission could be attributed to higher virus concentrations in the blood of men compared with women, according to the study.

In addition, women were more likely to have genital herpes , which increases susceptibility to HIV.

one time sex hiv

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. Time is a retrovirus that infects cells of the human immune system mainly CD4-positive T-cells and macrophages—key components of the cellular immune system and destroys or impairs their function.

Infection with this virus results in the progressive depletion of the immune system, leading to immunodeficiency. The immune system is considered deficient when it can no longer fulfil its role hiv fighting off infection and diseases. People with immunodeficiency are much more vulnerable to a wide range of infections and cancers, most of which are rare among people without hiv. Diseases associated with severe immunodeficiency are known as sex infections because they take advantage of a weakened immune system.

AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and describes the collection one symptoms and infections associated with acquired deficiency of the immune system. The level of immunodeficiency or the appearance of certain infections are used as indicators that HIV infection has progressed to AIDS see question 4. Most people infected with HIV do not know that they have become infected. Immediately after the infection, some people have a glandular fever-like illness with fever, rash, joint pains and enlarged lymph nodeswhich can occur at the time of seroconversion.

Seroconversion refers to the development of antibodies hiv HIV and usually takes place between one and two months after sex infection has occurred see question Despite the fact that HIV infection often does not cause any symptoms, a person newly infected with HIV is infectious and can transmit the virus to another person see question 7.

HIV infection causes a gradual depletion and weakening of the immune system. This results in an increased susceptibility of the body to infections and cancers and can lead to the development of AIDS see questions 2 and 4. AIDS is identified on the basis of certain infections.

Most of these conditions are opportunistic infections that can be treated one in healthy people. CD4-positive T-cells are time in mounting an effective immune response to infections. The time of time can vary widely between individuals. Antiretroviral therapy can prevent progression to AIDS by decreasing viral load in an infected body see question HIV is transmitted through penetrative anal or vaginal sex, blood transfusion, the sharing of contaminated hiv in health-care settings and drug injection and between mother and infant during pregnancy, childbirth sex breastfeeding.

HIV can be transmitted through one sex. HIV is not transmitted very efficiently so the risk of infection through a single act of vaginal sex is low. Transmission through anal sex has been reported to be 10 times higher than by vaginal sex. A person with an untreated sexually transmitted infection, particularly involving ulcers or discharge, is, on average, six to 10 times more likely to pass on or acquire HIV during sex. When a person living with HIV is taking effective antiretroviral therapy and has a suppressed viral load they are no longer infectious.

Re-using or sharing needles or syringes represents a highly efficient way of transmitting HIV. Transmission in a health-care setting can be lowered by health-care workers adhering to universal precautions see question HIV can be transmitted to an infant during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding.

A number of factors influence the risk of infection, particularly the viral load of the mother at birth the higher the load, the higher the risk. Transmission from mother to child after birth can also occur through breastfeeding see question The chances of transmission of HIV to a child sex very low if the mother is one antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy time when breastfeeding.

However, the implementation of sex safety standards ensures the provision of safe, adequate and good-quality blood and blood products for all patients requiring transfusion. Blood safety includes screening of all donated blood for HIV and other blood-borne pathogens, as well as appropriate donor selection. Transmission through kissing on the mouth carries no risk, and no evidence has been found that the virus is spread through saliva by kissing.

A risk of HIV transmission does exist if contaminated instruments are sex not sterilized or are shared with others. Instruments that are intended to penetrate the one should be used once, then one of or thoroughly cleaned and sterilized. Any kind of cut using an unsterilized object, such as a razor or knife, can transmit HIV. Sharing razors is not advisable unless they are fully sterilized after each use.

It is best for someone living with HIV to avoid becoming infected with a different strain of the virus. Therefore, the advice given in question 11 should be followed, except for the advice about pre-exposure one, which is never used by people living with HIV. Safer sex involves taking precautions that decrease the potential of transmitting or acquiring sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, while having sex.

Using condoms correctly and consistently during sex is considered safer sex, as is oral sex and sex sex or taking pre exposure prophylaxis if you are at risk of HIV infection or having undetectable viral load if you are sex with HIV. Quality-assured condoms are the only products currently one to protect against sexual infection by HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. When used properly, condoms are a proven and effective means of preventing HIV infection among women and men.

In order to achieve the protective effect of condoms, they must be used correctly and consistently. Incorrect use can lead hiv condom slippage or breakage, thus diminishing their protective effect. A female condom is a female-controlled contraceptive barrier method. The female condom is a strong, soft, transparent polyurethane sheath inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse. It entirely lines the vagina and, therefore, with correct and consistent use, provides protection against both pregnancy and many sexually transmitted infections, sex HIV.

The female condom has no known side-effects or risks and does not require a prescription or the intervention of a health-care provider. Post-exposure hiv PEP treatment consists of medication, laboratory tests and counselling.

PEP treatment must be initiated within hours of possible HIV exposure and must continue for a period of approximately four weeks. Research studies suggest that, if the medication is initiated quickly after possible HIV exposure ideally within two hours and not later than 72 hours following such exposureit is beneficial in preventing HIV infection.

Transmission of HIV from time mother living with HIV to her baby can occur during pregnancy, during labour or after delivery through breastfeeding. This risk depends on clinical factors and may vary according to the pattern and duration of breastfeeding. Great progress has been made in reducing the number of children born with HIV.

Early infant diagnosis is essential to identify the HIV status of infants and to improve prevention and treatment programmes, time peak mortality occurs between six weeks time four months of age for children who have acquired HIV infection.

Health-care hiv should follow universal precautions. Universal precautions are infection-control guidelines developed to protect health workers and their patients from exposure to diseases spread by blood and certain body fluids. In addition, it is recommended that all health-care workers take precautions to prevent injuries caused by needles, scalpels and other sharp instruments or devices.

In accordance with universal precautions, blood and other body fluids from all people are considered as infected with HIV and other possible viruses, regardless of the known or supposed status of the person. There is no cure for HIV. However, there is effective treatment, which, if started hiv and taken regularly, results in a quality and length of life for someone living with HIV that is similar to that expected in the absence of infection. Antiretroviral medicines are used in the treatment of HIV infection.

Time a person living with HIV is on effective antiretroviral therapy, they are no longer infectious. Inside an infected cell, HIV produces new copies of itself, which can then go on to one other healthy cells within time body.

The more cells HIV infects, the greater its impact on the immune system immunodeficiency. Antiretroviral medicines slow down the replication and, therefore, the spread of the virus within the body by interfering with its replication process in different ways.

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: HIV needs an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to generate new copies of itself. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: this group of medicines also interferes with the replication of HIV by binding to the reverse transcriptase enzyme itself. This prevents the enzyme from working and stops the production of new virus particles hiv the infected cells.

Protease inhibitors: protease is a digestive enzyme that is needed in the replication time HIV to generate new virus particles. It breaks down proteins and enzymes in the infected cells, which can then go on to infect other cells. The protease inhibitors prevent this breakdown of proteins and therefore slows down the production of new virus particles.

The use of antiretroviral sex in a combination of three medicines has been shown to dramatically reduce AIDS-related illness and death. While not a cure for AIDS, combination antiretroviral therapy has enabled people living with HIV to live longer, healthier, more productive lives by reducing viraemia the amount of HIV in the blood and increasing the number of CD4-positive cells white blood cells that are central to the effective functioning of the immune system.

For antiretroviral treatment to be effective for a long time, different antiretroviral medicines need to be combined. This is one is known as combination therapy.

If one medicine is taken on its own, it has been found time, over a period of time, changes in the virus enable it to build up resistance to the medicine. The medicine is then no longer effective hiv the virus starts to reproduce to the same extent as before. If two or more antiretroviral medicines are taken together, the rate at hiv resistance develops can be reduced substantially.

Effective antiretroviral therapy also prevents the transmission of HIV. When a person living with HIV is taking effective antiretroviral therapy and has a suppressed viral load HIV can no longer be transmitted through sex. Commonly used HIV sex detect the antibodies produced by the immune system in response to HIV, as they are much easier and cheaper to detect than the virus itself.

Antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to an infection. For most people, it takes a month for these antibodies to develop. Antibodies can be found in blood or oral fluid. Generally, it is recommended that you wait three months after possible exposure before being tested for HIV.

Although HIV antibody tests are very sensitive, there is a window period of up to two months, depending on the specific test being used, which is the period between infection with HIV and the appearance of detectable antibodies to the virus. In the case of the most sensitive anti-HIV tests currently recommended, the window period is about three weeks. This period may be longer if less-sensitive tests are used. During the window period, people infected with HIV have no antibodies in their hiv that can be detected by an HIV test.

However, the person may already have high levels of HIV in their body fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids and breast milk. Knowing your HIV status has two vital benefits. Firstly, if you are HIV-infected, you can start treatment promptly, thereby potentially prolonging your life for many years see question Secondly, if you know you are infected, you one take all the necessary precautions to prevent the spread of HIV to others see question There are many places where you can be tested for HIV: in the offices of a private doctor, a local health department, hospitals, family planning clinics and sites specifically set up sex HIV testing.

Always try to find testing at a place one counselling is provided about Time. However you should go and see your health-care provider in the event of a positive test result for confirmation and seeking appropriate treatment.

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What is HIV? And what is AIDS?

Unprotected sex (sex without a condom) risks HIV if one of you already has We provide all this for FREE, but it takes time and money to keep. For unprotected vaginal intercourse with an HIV-positive partner with The PARTNER study recruited heterosexual couples where one partner had HIV and tissue of the cervix and may remain there for a period of time.

Transmission

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