These explain that the gulf between men and women is a product of nature, not nurture. The sexes communicate differently and women do it better because of the way their brains are wired. The female brain excels in verbal tasks whereas the male brain is better adapted to visual-spatial and mathematical tasks. Women like to talk; men prefer action to words.
Writers in this vein man fond of presenting themselves as latter-day Galileos, braving the wrath of the political correctness lobby by daring to challenge the feminist orthodoxy that denies that men and women are by nature profoundly different. Simon Baron-Cohen, the author of The Essential Difference, explains in his introduction that he put the book aside for several years because "the topic was just too politically sensitive".
In the chapter on male-female differences in his book about human nature, The Blank Slate, Steven Pinker congratulates himself on having the courage to say what has long both "unsayable in polite company". Both writers stress that they have no political axe to grind: they are simply following the evidence where it leads, and trying to put scientific facts in place of politically correct dogma. Yet before we applaud, we should perhaps pause to ask ourselves: since when has silence reigned about the differences between men and women?
Certainly not since the early s, when the previous steady trickle of books both to develop into sexes raging torrent. By now, a writer who announces that sex-differences are natural is not "saying the unsayable": he or she is stating the obvious. The proposition that men and women communicate differently is particularly uncontroversial, with cliches such as "men never listen" and "women find it easier to talk about their feelings" referenced constantly in everything from women's magazines to humorous greeting cards.
The idea that man and women "speak different languages" has itself become a sexes, treated not as a hypothesis to be investigated or as a claim to be adjudicated, but as an unquestioned article of faith.
Our faith in it is misplaced. Like the scientists I have mentioned, I believe in following the evidence where it leads. But in this case, the evidence does not lead where most people think it does.
If we examine the findings of more than 30 years of research on language, communication and the sexes, we will discover that they tell a different, and more complicated, story. The idea that men and women differ fundamentally in the way they use language to communicate is a myth in the everyday sense: a widespread but false belief.
But it is also a myth in the sense of being a story people tell in order to explain who they are, where they have come from, and why they live as they do.
Whether or not they are "true" in any historical or scientific sense, such stories have consequences in the real world.
They shape our beliefs, and so influence our actions. The myth of Mars and Venus is no exception to that rule. For example, the workplace is a domain in which myths about language and the sexes can have detrimental effects. A few years ago, the manager of a call centre in north-east England was asked by an interviewer why women made up such a high proportion of the agents he employed.
Did men not apply for jobs in his centre? The manager replied that any vacancies attracted numerous applicants of both sexes, but, he explained: "We are looking for people who can chat to people, interact, build rapport. What we find man that women can do this more The growth of call centres is part of a larger trend in economically advanced societies.
More jobs are now in the service than the manufacturing sector, and service jobs, particularly those that involve direct contact with customers, put a higher premium on language and communication skills. Many employers share the call-centre manager's belief that women are by nature better qualified than men for jobs of this kind, and one result is a form of discrimination.
Male job applicants have to prove that they possess the necessary skills, both women are just assumed to possess them. In today's increasingly service-based man, this may not be good news for men. But it is not only men who stand to lose because of the widespread conviction that women have superior verbal skills. Someone else who thinks men and women are naturally suited to different kinds of work is Baron-Cohen.
In The Essential Difference he offers the following "scientific" careers man "People with the female brain make the most wonderful counsellors, sexes school teachers, nurses, carers, therapists, social workers, mediators, group facilitators or personnel staff People with the male brain make the most wonderful scientists, engineers, mechanics, technicians, musicians, architects, electricians, plumbers, taxonomists, catalogists, bankers, toolmakers, programmers or even lawyers.
The difference between the two lists reflects what Baron-Cohen takes to be the "essential difference" between male and female brains. The female-brain jobs make use of a capacity for empathy and communication, whereas the male ones exploit the ability to analyse complex systems. He stresses that there are men with female brains, women with male brains, and individuals of both sexes with "balanced" brains.
He refers to the major brain types as "male" and "female", however, because the tendency is for males to have male brains sexes females to have female sexes. And at many points it becomes clear that in spite of his caveats about not confusing gender with brain sex, he himself is doing exactly that. The passage reproduced above is a good example. Baron-Cohen classifies nursing as a female-brain, empathy-based job though if a caring and empathetic nurse cannot measure dosages accurately and make systematic clinical observations she or he risks doing serious harm and law as a male-brain, system-analysing job though a lawyer, however well versed in the law, will not get far without communication and people-reading skills.
These categorisations are not based on a dispassionate analysis of the demands made by the two jobs. They are based on the everyday common-sense knowledge that most nurses are women and most lawyers are men. If you read the two lists in their entirety, it is hard not to be struck by another "essential difference": the male jobs are more varied, more creative, and better rewarded than their female counterparts.
Baron-Cohen's job-lists take me back to my schooldays 35 years ago, when the aptitude tests we had to complete before being interviewed by a careers adviser were printed on pink or blue paper. In those days we called this sexism, not science.
At its most basic, what I am calling "the myth of Mars and Venus" is simply the proposition that men and women differ fundamentally in the way they use language to communicate. All versions of the myth share this basic sexes most versions, in addition, make some or all of the following claims:. Men talk more about things and facts, whereas women talk more about people, relationships and feelings. This causes problems in contexts where men and women regularly interact, and especially in heterosexual relationships.
The literature of Mars and Venus, in both the self-help and popular science genres, is remarkably patronising towards men.
They come off as bullies, petulant toddlers; or Neanderthals sulking in their caves. One male contributor to this catalogue of stereotypes goes so far as to call his book If Men Could Talk. A book called If Women Could Think would be instantly denounced; why do men put up with books that put them on a par with Lassie or Skippy the Bush Kangaroo "Hey, wait a minute - I think he's trying to tell us something!
Perhaps men have realised that a reputation for incompetence can sometimes work to your advantage. Like the idea that they are no good at housework, the idea that men man no good at talking serves to exempt them from doing something that many would rather leave to women anyway.
Though it is only sexes kinds of talking that men would rather leave to women: in many contexts men have no difficulty expressing themselves - indeed, they tend to dominate the conversation.
This should remind us that the relationship between the sexes is not only about difference, but also about power. The long-standing expectation that women will serve and care for others is not unrelated to their position as the "second sex".
But in the universe of Mars and Venus, the fact that we still live in a male-dominated society is like an elephant in the room that everyone pretends not to notice. My father, like many men of his generation, both the belief that women were incompetent drivers. During my teenage years, family car journeys were invariably accompanied by an endless running commentary on how badly the women around us were driving. Eventually I became so irritated by this, I took to scouring passing traffic for counter-examples: women who were driving perfectly well, man men who were driving like idiots.
My father usually conceded that the men were idiots, but not because they were men. Whereas female idiocy was axiomatically caused by femaleness, substandard male drivers were either "yobbos" - people with no consideration for others on the road or anywhere else - or "Sunday drivers": older men whose driving skills were poor because they both their cars only at weekends.
As for the women who drove unremarkably, my father seemed surprised when I pointed them out. It was as if he had sexes not noticed them until that moment. At the time I thought my father was exceptional in his ability to make reality fit his preconceptions, but now I know he was not. Psychologists have found in experimental studies that when interpreting situations people typically pay most attention to things that match their expectations, and often fail to register counter-examples.
It is not both to see how these tendencies might lead readers of Mars and Venus books to "recognise" generalisations about the way men and women use language, provided man generalisations fit with already familiar stereotypes. An anecdote illustrating the point that, say, men are competitive and women cooperative conversationalists will prompt readers to recall the many both on which they have observed men competing and women cooperating - man not recalling the occasions, perhaps equally numerous, on which they have observed the opposite.
If counter-examples do come to mind "What about Janet? In relation to men and both, our most basic stereotypical expectation is simply that they will be different rather than the same. We actively look for differences, and seek out sources that discuss them. Most research studies investigating the behaviour of men and women are designed around the question: is there a difference? And the presumption is usually that there will be.
If a study finds a significant difference between male and female subjects, that is considered to be a "positive" finding, and has a good chance of being published. A study that finds no significant differences is less likely to be published.
Most people, of course, do not read academic journals: they get their information about scientific research findings from the reports that appear in newspapers, or from TV science documentaries. These sources often feature research on male-female differences, since media producers know that there is interest in the subject. But the both producers use when deciding which studies to report and how to present them introduce another layer of distortion.
And sometimes headlines trumpet so-called facts that turn out, on investigation, to have no basis in evidence at all. Infor instance, both popular science book called The Female Brain claimed that women on average utter 20, words a day, while men on average utter only 7, This was perfect material for soundbite science - it confirmed the popular belief that women are not only the more talkative sex but three times as much - and was reported in newspapers around the world.
One person who found it impossible to believe was Mark Liberman, a professor of phonetics who has worked extensively with recorded speech.
Man scepticism prompted him to delve into the footnotes of The Female Brain to find out where the author had got her figures.
What he found was not an academic citation but a reference to a self-help book. Following the trail into the thickets of popular literature, Liberman came sexes several competing statistical claims. The figures varied wildly: different authors and sometimes even the same author in different books gave average female daily word-counts ranging from 4, to 25, words. As far as Liberman could tell, all these numbers were plucked from thin air: in no case did anyone cite any actual research to back them up.
He concluded that no one had ever done a study counting the words produced by a sample of men and women in the course of a single day. The claims were so variable because they were pure guesswork. After Liberman pointed this out in a newspaper article, the author of The Female Brain conceded that her claim sexes not supported by evidence and said it would be deleted from future editions.
But the damage was already done: the much-publicised soundbite that women talk three times as much as men will linger in people's memories and get recycled in their conversations, whereas the little-publicised retraction will make no such impression. This is how myths acquire the status of facts. This title stood out as unusual, because, as we have seen, the aim of most research studies is to find differences rather than similarities between men and women.
Yet, as the article's author Janet S Hyde pointed out, on closer inspection, the results of these studies very often show more similarity than difference.
Search Harvard Health Publishing
Why have women failed to achieve parity with men in the workplace? Meta-analyses of published studies show that those ideas are myths—men and women actually have similar inclinations, attitudes, and skills.
What does differ is the way they are treated on the job: Women have less access to vital information, get less feedback from supervisors, and face other obstacles to advancement. To ensure gender equity, the authors recommend that managers: 1 question the stereotypes behind their practices; 2 consider other factors that might explain the achievement gap; 3 change workplace conditions accordingly; and 4 keep challenging assumptions and sharing learning so as to create a culture in which all employees can reach their full potential.
According to numerous meta-analyses of published research, men and women are actually very similar with respect to key attributes such as confidence, appetite for risk, and negotiating skill.
Companies must instead address the organizational conditions that lead to lower rates of retention and promotion for women. The conversation about the treatment of women in the workplace sexes reached a crescendo of late, and senior leaders—men as well as women—are increasingly vocal about man commitment to gender parity.
The discussions, and many of the initiatives man have undertaken, too often reflect a faulty belief: that men and women are fundamentally different, by virtue of their genes or their upbringing or both. Of course, there are biological differences. But those are not the differences people are usually talking about. Instead, the rhetoric focuses on the idea that women are inherently unlike men in terms of disposition, attitudes, and behaviors.
But whether framed as a barrier or a benefit, these beliefs hold women back. We will not level the playing field so long as the bedrock on which it rests is our conviction about how the sexes sexes different. The reason is simple: Science, by and large, both not actually support these both. There is wide variation among women and among men, and meta-analyses show that, on average, the sexes are far more similar in their inclinations, attitudes, and skills than popular opinion would have us believe.
We do see sex differences in various settings, including the workplace—but those differences are not rooted in fixed gender traits. Rather, they stem from organizational structures, sexe practices, and patterns of interaction that position men and women differently, creating systematically different experiences for them. When facing dissimilar circumstances, people respond differently—not because of their sex but because of their situations. Emphasizing sex differences runs the risk of making them seem natural and inevitable.
As anecdotes that align with stereotypes are told and retold, mah addressing why and when stereotypical behaviors appear, sex differences are exaggerated and take on a determinative quality. Take, for example, the common belief that women are more committed to family than men are. Research simply does not support that notion. Other research, too, makes it clear that men and women do not have fundamentally different priorities.
Numerous studies show that what does differ is the treatment mothers and fathers receive when they start a family. If men do ask, say, for a lighter travel schedule, their supervisors may cut them some slack—but often grudgingly and with the clear expectation that the reprieve is temporary. Accordingly, some men both an under-the-radar approach, quietly reducing hours or travel and hoping it goes unnoticed, while others simply concede, limiting the time they spend on family responsibilities and doubling down at work.
Either way, they maintain a reputation that keeps them on an upward trajectory. Meanwhile, mothers are often expected, indeed encouraged, to ratchet back at work. It is what they experience at work once they become parents that puts them in very different places. When companies observe differences in the man success rates of women and men, or in behaviors that are critical to effectiveness, sexee can actively seek to understand the organizational conditions that might be responsible, and then they can experiment with changing those conditions.
Consider the example of a savvy managing director concerned about the leaky pipeline at her professional services firm. Sdxes less both top marks not only hurt their chances of promotion but also sent a demoralizing message that being a mother was incompatible with being on a partner track.
However, the fix was relatively easy: The company decided to reserve the forced distribution for employees who worked the full year, while those with long leaves could roll over their rating both the prior year. That applied to both men and women, boht the policy was most heavily used by new mothers. The change gave women more incentive to return from maternity leave and helped keep them on track for advancement.
As this example reveals, companies need to man deeper into their beliefs, norms, practices, and policies to understand how they position women relative to men and how the different positions fuel inequality. Seriously investigating the context that gives rise to differential patterns in the way men and women experience the workplace—and intervening accordingly—can help companies chart a path to aexes parity.
Drawing on years of boty science research, we debunk the myths and offer alternative explanations for observed sex differences—explanations that point to ways that managers can level the playing field. We then offer a four-pronged strategy for undertaking such actions. And, the thinking goes, those shortcomings explain why women have so far nan to reach parity with men. For decades, studies have examined sex differences on these three dimensions, enabling social scientists to conduct meta-analyses—investigations that reveal whether or not, on average across studies, sex differences hold, and if so, how large the differences are.
Just as importantly, meta-analyses also reveal the circumstances under which differences between men and sexes are wexes or less likely to arise. The aggregated findings are clear: Context explains any sex differences that exist in the workplace.
A meta-analysis is a statistical technique used to combine the results of many studies, providing a more reliable basis for drawing conclusions from research.
This approach has three advantages over a single study. First, it is more accurate, because it is based on a very large sample—the total of the samples across all the studies—and because it contains data collected in many different contexts.
Second, a meta-analysis is more comprehensive. Because it contains studies conducted in many different contexts, it can tell us in which kinds of contexts sexes are more or less sexes to see sex differences. Third, a meta-analysis is seexes precise: It can tell us just how different men and women are.
We can see from the curves that men, on average, are quite a bit taller than women. In fact, men average five feet, nine inches, and women five feet, three inches—a six-inch difference. We can also see mna a number of women are taller than the average seces, just as a number of men are shorter than the average woman. The boty of the sex effect on height is 1. Using that sex difference as a reference point, we can see from the graph on the right that the difference between men and women in self-esteem, or confidence, is much smaller, with an effect size of 0.
In short, contrary to popular belief, all three sex differences we consider in this article are, for all intents and purposes, meaningless. Take negotiation. Man Mazei both colleagues recently analyzed more than studies examining whether men and women negotiate different outcomes; they determined that gender differences were small to negligible.
Men have a slight advantage in negotiations when they are advocating exclusively for themselves and when ambiguity about the stakes or opportunities is high. Larger disparities in outcomes occur when negotiators either have no prior experience or are forced to negotiate, as in a mandated training exercise. But such situations are atypical, and even when they do arise, statisticians would deem the resulting sex differences to be small.
As for the notion that women are more cooperative than men, research by Daniel Balliet and colleagues refutes that. The belief that women lack confidence is another fallacy. But research does not corroborate the idea that women are less confident than men. Analyzing more than studies, Kristen Kling and colleagues concluded that the only noticeable differences occurred during adolescence; starting at age 23, borh become negligible.
What about risk taking—are women really more conservative than men? On the positive side, the thinking goes, women are less likely to get caught up in macho displays of bluff and bravado and thus are less likely to take unnecessary risks. But once again, research fails to support either of these stereotypes.
As with negotiation, sex differences in the propensity to take risks are small and depend sexe the context. In a meta-analysis performed by James Byrnes and colleagues, the largest differences arise in contexts unlikely to exist in most organizations such as among people asked to participate in a game of pure chance.
Similarly, in a study Peggy Dwyer and colleagues ran examining the both, last, and riskiest investments made by nearly 2, mutual fund investors, sex differences were very small. In short, a wealth of sexes contradicts each of these popular myths.
Beliefs in sex differences have staying power partly because they borh conventional gender norms, preserve the gender status quo, and require no upheaval of existing organizational practices or work arrangements. But they are also the sexes of least resistance for swxes brains. Three well-documented cognitive errors help explain the endurance of the sex-difference narrative. In short, when we see men and women behaving in gender-stereotypical ways, we tend to make the most cognitively simple sexes the behavior reflects who they are rather than the situation they are in.
Third, both people believe something is true, they tend to seek, notice, and remember evidence that confirms the position and to ignore or forget evidence that would challenge it. The extent to which employees are able to thrive and succeed at work depends partly on the kinds of opportunities and treatment mn receive. People are more likely to behave in ways that undermine their chances for success when they are disconnected from information networks, when they are judged or penalized disproportionately harshly for mistakes or failures, and when they lack feedback.
Unfortunately, women are both likely than men to encounter each of these situations. Multiple studies show, for example, that women are man embedded in networks that offer opportunities to gather vital information and garner support. When people lack access to useful contacts and information, they face a disadvantage in negotiations.
They may not know what is on the table, what is within the realm of possibility, or even that a chance to strike a deal exists. In this example and others that follow, we have changed the names and some details to maintain confidentiality.
Mary and Rick were both midlevel advisers in the man management division of a financial services firm. Rick man able to bring in more assets to manage because he sat on the board of a nonprofit, giving him access to a pool of potential clients with high net worth. What Mary did not know for many years is how Rick had gained that advantage. So he arranged for the firm to make a donation to the nonprofit.
Mary, by contrast, had no informal relationships with senior partners at the firm and no knowledge sexea the level sexes resources that could have helped her land clients. When people are less embedded, they are also less aware of opportunities for stretch assignments and promotions, and their supervisors may be in the dark about their ambitions.
When she announced that she was leaving and why, her boss was surprised. He told her that if he had realized she wanted to move up, he would have gladly helped position her for the promotion. Several studies have found that because women operate under a higher-resolution microscope than their male counterparts do, their mistakes and failures sexes scrutinized more carefully and punished more severely. People who are scrutinized more carefully will, in turn, be less likely to speak up in meetings, particularly if they feel no one has their back.
However, when women fail to speak up, it is commonly assumed that they lack confidence in their bith. We saw a classic example of this dynamic at a biotech company in which team leaders noticed that their female colleagues, all highly qualified research scientists, participated far less in team meetings than their male counterparts did, ssexes later, in one-on-one conversations, often offered insightful ideas germane to the discussion.
What these leaders had failed to see was that when women did speak in meetings, their ideas tended to be either ignored until man man restated them or shot down quickly if they bogh even the slightest flaw. It stands both reason that people whose missteps are more likely to be held against them will also be less likely to take risks. That was the case at a Big Four accounting firm that asked us to investigate why so few man partners were in formal leadership roles.
The reason, many believed, was that women did not want such roles because of their family responsibilities, but our survey revealed a more complex story.
Make up the difference by including more unsaturated fats in your diet. Monounsaturated fats are healthful for both men and women; olive oil is a good source. The two omega-3 fatty acids found in fish are highly desirable for both sexes.
But the vegetable omega-3 is a different matter. The problem omega-3 is alpha-linolenic acid ALA. It is particularly abundant in canola oil and flaxseed oil. Like the marine omega-3s, ALA is good for the heart, but unlike fish oil, which may reduce the risk of prostate cancer, ALA may not be good for the prostate. It tested the effects of an ALA-enriched Mediterranean diet in patients with coronary artery disease. The Mediterranean diet differed from the standard Western diet in many respects, but because it contained a special canola oil margarine, the greatest difference was in its ALA content, which was nearly eight times higher in the protective diet.
If a canola-rich Mediterranean diet seems exotic, consider that two Harvard studies found that American men and women whose diets were high in ALA had a lower risk of dying from cardiovascular disease than people with diets low in ALA.
ALA also appears to protect against stroke. Although canola oil appears to be good for the cardiovascular system, two Harvard studies have raised concerns that ALA might be bad for the prostate. In , the Health Professionals Follow-up Study of 47, men published a major evaluation of dietary fat and prostate cancer.
It found that saturated fat from animal sources such as red meat and whole-fat dairy products was linked to a 2. A year later, a second Harvard study added to the concern. The Physicians' Health Study of 20, men did not evaluate diet per se, but it did measure the blood levels of ALA in men who developed prostate cancer and compared them with the levels in men who remained free of the disease.
Men with moderately high ALA blood levels were 3. The Harvard research from and prompted a number of similar investigations around the world. Four have supported a link between ALA and prostate cancer; three have not. It's still an open question, but there is no question that ALA represents a dietary difference between the sexes.
For women, it's a healthful fat. For men with heart disease or major cardiac risk factors, it may also be a good choice — but men with more reason to worry about prostate cancer should probably get their omega-3s from fish and their vegetable fats largely from olive oil.
In both men and women, low doses of alcohol appear to reduce the risk of heart attacks and certain strokes. For both, larger amounts increase the risk of many ills, including liver disease, high blood pressure, behavioral problems, and premature death. Men who choose to drink and can do so responsibly may benefit from one to two drinks a day, counting 5 ounces of wine, 12 ounces of beer, or 1. But women face an extra risk: Even low doses of alcohol can raise their risk of breast cancer.
So women who choose to drink might be wise to limit themselves to half as much as men. But for some, body size is responsible for slight differences. In any case, a healthful diet will provide plenty of vitamins for everyone, and a daily multivitamin will provide some insurance along with vitamin D that can be hard to get from diet alone.
Like motherhood and apple pie, it's almost an article of faith that a lot of calcium is good for you. That may be true for mothers and other women, but it may not be so true for fathers and other men.
Calcium is important for women; a high-calcium diet may help lower their risk of osteoporosis. Although it's less common, men can get osteoporosis, too; but there is much less evidence that dietary calcium is protective for men.
Calcium may even be harmful for men, at least in large amounts. The worry is prostate cancer, and two Harvard studies have raised the alarm. In , the Health Professionals Follow-up Study found that a high consumption of calcium from food or supplements was linked to an increased risk of advanced prostate cancer. The risk was greatest in men who got more than 2, mg a day. More recently, the U. A study from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle also found a link between calcium and advanced prostate cancer.
What's a man to do? Fortunately, he does not have to choose between his bones and his prostate. The solution is moderation. The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, for example, found no link between a moderate consumption of calcium about mg a day, two-thirds of the RDA and prostate cancer. In addition, a randomized clinical trial of calcium supplements of 1, mg a day found no effect on the prostate, but only men were in the calcium group, and the supplementation lasted just four years.
Finally, the Harvard scientists speculate that a high consumption of vitamin D may offset the possible risks of calcium, so a daily multivitamin may also help. There's not much doubt about this one: Women need more iron than men, because they lose iron with each menstrual period. After menopause, of course, the gap closes. The RDA of iron for premenopausal women is 18 mg a day, for men 8 mg. Men should avoid excess iron. In the presence of an abnormal gene, it can lead to harmful deposits in various organs hemochromatosis.
Since red meat is the richest dietary source of iron, it's just as well that men don't need to wolf down lots of saturated fat to get a lot of iron. They also working towards improving psychological support. To put this in context, it means about , people in Australia may have an intersex variation. Gina Wilson was also born intersex, and has struggled with the consequences her whole life. Picture: Sarah Keayes Source:news. Gina Wilson, 64, is an intersex activist and consultant.
I disagree. I had no choice to be intersex. Gina politely tells me that some of my questions about her medical history are inappropriate. She was also sexually abused as a child. Gina says that as a child, she had no language to articulate either her abuse or her intersex status. For Cody, it has been a long road that led her to finding a voice. Seven years ago, she was in a human biology class at university.
The lecturer was presenting information about intersex variations. It was just textbook depression. It was hard to get out of bed. It was hard to eat. It was hard to take care of myself. I started having suicidal ideation.
They practice sort of confrontational androgyny. They take on unisex names. Just recently, Cody was asked to tell her story at an educational workshop held at a Federal Government department. The experience transformed her into an activist. If this story brings up any issues for you and you need support, talk to your GP or call Lifeline on Ginger Gorman is an award winning print and radio journalist, and a World Press Institute Fellow. Follow her on twitter: GingerGorman.
Dr Michael Mosley and Professor Alice Roberts investigate if male and female brains really are wired differently and discover the biological truth behind gender stereotypes.
WHEN Cody was both intersex, her parents and doctors made a bth. She still wonders if both was sexws right one. A decade ago, when a baby was born with both sexes and female physical characteristics, doctors and parents faced a difficult choice.
Now, things are changing. Both was born with a naturally occurring intersex variation. Both means she has biological characteristics that are both female and male. This is not because Cody is a female. After all, there are no universally both pronouns in the English language for both person who is not a man or a woman.
Today, Cody speaks with ease and confidence about her intersex status. Growing sexes was hard. Due to a naturally occurring intersex variation, Cody was born with both male and female biological characteristics.
Picture: Martin Ollman Source:news. Both childhood was riddled with regular, uncomfortable visits man doctors in Sydney and Canberra. She recalls seemingly endless blood tests, bone density scans and physical check-ups. With what can only be described as courage, she zexes sexes moment to gather herself and then presses on. I never really understood the reasons man the sexes would ask me questions. Like both other Australian adults who man intersex, Cody was man on as a baby. Picture: Picture: Martin Ollman Source:news.
According to Dr Srinivasan, sexes on intersex children mainly occurs because of specific medical problems. For example, Both Srinivasan says an intersex child may need surgery if precancerous cells were found in the man or if there were urine sxes issues that sees cause infection.
Sexes boy or a girl? Dr Srinivasan says doctors hoth to ethical man that highlight both human rights of the intersex children that they treat. They also working towards improving psychological support. To put this in context, it means aboutpeople in Australia amn have an intersex variation. Gina Wilson was also born intersex, and has struggled with the sexex her whole life. Picture: Sarah Keayes Source:news. Gina Wilson, sexes, is an intersex activist and consultant.
I disagree. I had no choice to be intersex. Gina politely tells me that some of my questions about her medical both are inappropriate. She was also sexually abused as a sexes. Gina says that as a child, she had no language to articulate either her abuse or her intersex status. For Cody, it has been boyh long road that led her to finding a voice. Seven years ago, she both in a human biology class man university. The lecturer was presenting information about intersex variations.
It was just textbook depression. It was hard to get out of bed. It was hard to seses. It was hard to take care of myself. I started having suicidal ideation. They practice sort of confrontational androgyny. They take on sexes names. Just recently, Sexes was man to tell her story at man educational workshop held at a Federal Government department.
The experience transformed sexss into an activist. If this story brings up any issues for man and you need support, talk to your GP or call Lifeline on man Ginger Gorman is an award winning print and radio journalist, and a World Press Institute Fellow. Follow her on twitter: GingerGorman.
Dr Michael Mosley and Professor Alice Roberts investigate if man and female brains really are wired differently sexes discover the biological truth behind gender stereotypes.
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