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Republicans loyal to the left -leaning Second Spanish Republicrevolution alliance with anarchistsfought against a revolt by the Nationalistsan alliance of Falangistsmonarchistsconservatives and Catholicsled by a military group among whom General Francisco Franco soon achieved a preponderant role.
Due to international international political climate at the time, the war had many facets, and was variously viewed as class strugglea war of religiona struggle between dictatorship and republican democracybetween revolution and counterrevolutionbetween fascism and communism. The Nationalists won the war, which ended in earlyand ruled Spain until Franco's death in November Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided. The Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country.
The Nationalist forces received munitions, soldiers, and air support from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italywhile the Republican side received support from the Soviet Union and Mexico. Other countries, such as the United KingdomFranceand the United Statescontinued to recognise the Republican government, but followed an official policy of non-intervention.
Notwithstanding this policy, tens of thousands of citizens from non-interventionist countries revolution participated in the conflict. They fought mostly in the pro-Republican International Brigadeswhich also included several thousand exiles from pro-Nationalist regimes. The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in They also besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war. After much of Catalonia was captured in andand Madrid cut off from Barcelona, the Republican military position became hopeless.
Following the fall without resistance of Barcelona revolution Januarythe recognition of the Francoist regime by France and the United Kingdom in Februaryand internal conflict between Republican factions in Madrid in MarchFranco entered the capital and declared victory on 1 April Hundreds of thousands of Spaniards fled to refugee camps in southern France.
With the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime.
The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides. Organised purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces so they could consolidate their future regime. The 19th century was a turbulent international for Spain. Those in favour of reforming Spain's government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place.
Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution ofsought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain and to establish a liberal state. There was little development of a bourgeois industrial or commercial class. The land-based oligarchy remained powerful; a small number of people held international estates called latifundia as well as all the important government positions. Two distinct factors led to the uprisings: a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military led by General Joan Prim concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy.
In Isabella's replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoyabdicated owing to increasing political pressure, and the short-lived First Spanish Republic was proclaimed. Spain was neutral in World War I. Following the war, wide swathes of Spanish society, including the armed forces, united in hopes of removing the corrupt central government, but were unsuccessful.
There was little support for the monarchy in the major cities. Consequently, King Alfonso XIII gave in to popular pressure for the establishment of a republic in and called municipal elections for 12 April of that year. The socialist and liberal republicans won almost all the provincial capitals, and following the resignation of Aznar's government, King Alfonso XIII fled the country. It remained in power until the culmination of the Spanish Civil War.
Sex government's slow response disillusioned the right and reinforced their view that the Republic was determined to persecute the church. This led many workers to believe the Spanish Second Republic was just as oppressive as the monarchy and the CNT announced their intention of overthrowing it via revolution. Fascism remained a reactive threat, helped by controversial reforms to the military.
It included strong provisions enforcing a broad secularisation of the Catholic country, which included the abolishing of Catholic schools and charities, which many moderate committed Catholics opposed. The recent enfranchisement revolution women, most of whom voted for centre-right parties, was also a contributing factor.
Events in the period following Novembercalled the "black two years", seemed to make a civil war more likely. The rebellion had a temporary success in Asturias and Barcelonabut was over in two weeks. He was arrested and charged with complicity in the rebellion.
In the last months oftwo government collapses brought members of the CEDA into the government. One historian argued that the behaviour of the right in the southern countryside was one of the main causes of hatred during the Civil War and possibly even the Civil War itself.
According to Stanley Payne, by July the situation in Spain had deteriorated massively. Spanish commentators spoke of chaos and preparation for revolution, foreign diplomats were making plans on what to do if revolution broke out and an interest in fascism was developing amongst the threatened.
Sex states that by July Laia Balcells observes that polarisation in International just before the coup was so intense that physical confrontations between leftists and rightists were a routine occurrence in most localities; six days before the coup occurred, there was a riot between the two international the province of Teruel. Balcells notes that Spanish society was so divided along Left-Right lines that the monk Hilari Raguer stated that in sex parish, instead of playing "cops and robbers", children would sometimes play "leftists and rightists.
The Popular Front government was more likely to persecute rightists for violence than leftist who committed similar acts. On the other hand, international was reluctant to disarm the military as be believed he needed them to stop insurrections from the extreme left.
Illegal land occupation became widespread - poor tenant farmers knew the government was disinclined to stop them. By Aprilnearlypeasants had appropriatedhectares of land and perhaps as may as international million hectares by the start of the civil war; for comparison, the land reform had granted only peasants 45, hectares. As many strikes occurred between April and July as had occurred in the entirety of Workers increasingly demanded less work and more pay.
In some cases this was done in the company of armed militants. Conservatives, the middle classes, businessmen and landowners became convinced that revolution had already begun. The Republican government acted to remove suspect generals from influential posts. Franco was sacked as chief of staff and transferred to command of the Canary Islands.
Mola's plan for the new regime was envisioned as a "republican dictatorship", modelled after Salazar's Portugal and as a semi-pluralist authoritarian regime rather than a totalitarian fascist dictatorship. Revolution initial government would be an all-military "Directory", which would create a "strong and disciplined state.
The Constitution would be suspended, replaced by a new "constituent parliament" which would be chosen by a new politically purged electorate, who would sex on the issue of republic versus monarchy. Certain liberal elements would remain, such as separation of church and state as well as freedom of religion.
Agrarian issues would be solved by regional commissioners on the basis of smallholdings but collective cultivation would be permitted revolution some circumstances. Legislation prior to February would be respected. Casares did nothing, failing to arrest or buy international Franco. Mola thus had concluded that the troops in Spain were insufficient for the task and that it would be necessary to use elite units from North Africa, something which Franco had always believed would be necessary.
Castillo was a Socialist party member who, among other activities, revolution giving military training to the UGT youth.
Castillo had led the Assault Guards that violently suppressed the riots after the funeral of Guardia Civil lieutenant Anastasio de los Revolution. Los Reyes had been shot by anarchists during 14 April military parade commemorating the five years of the Republic.
Massive reprisals followed. The involvement of forces of public order in the plot and a lack of punishment or action against the attackers hurt public opinion of the government.
No effective action was taken; Payne points towards possible veto by socialists within the government who shielded the killers who had been drawn from their ranks. The murder of the leader of parliamentary opposition by state police was unprecedented and the belief that the state sex ceased to be neutral and efficient in its duties encouraged important sectors of the right to join the rebellion.
The Socialists and Communists, led by Indalecio Prietodemanded that arms sex distributed to the people before the military took over. The prime minister was hesitant. The uprising's timing was fixed at 17 July, atagreed to by the leader of the Carlists, Manuel Fal Conde. Control over Spanish Morocco was all but certain. Little resistance was encountered. In total, the rebels shot people. They opened weapons caches, some buried since the risings. Quick action by either the rebels or anarchist militias was often enough to decide the fate of a town.
The rebels termed themselves Nacionalesnormally translated "Nationalists", although the former implies "true Spaniards" rather than a nationalistic cause. The Spanish Republican Army had just 18 tanks of a sufficiently modern design, and the Nationalists took control international The war was cast by Republican sympathisers as a struggle between tyranny and freedom, and by Nationalist supporters as communist and anarchist "red hordes" versus "Christian civilisation".
During the republic, anarchists had mixed opinions, but both major groups opposed the Nationalists during the Civil War. The Nationalists, in contrast, were united by their fervent opposition to the Republican government and presented a more unified front.
The coup divided the armed forces fairly evenly. One historical estimate suggests that there were some 87, troops loyal to the government and some 77, joining the insurgency,  though some historians suggest that the Nationalist figure should be revised upwards and that it probably amounted to some 95, During the first few months both armies were joined in high numbers by volunteers, Nationalists by somemen and Republicans by someThe result was that in April there were somesoldiers in the Republican ranks and somein the Nationalist ones.
The armies kept growing. The principal source of manpower was conscription; both sides continued and expanded their schemes, the Nationalists drafting somewhat more aggressively, and sex was little room left for volunteering.
Foreigners contributed little to further growth; on the Nationalist side the Sex scaled down their engagement, while on the Republican side the influx of new interbrigadistas did not cover losses suffered by these units on the front. Throughout the principal if not exclusive source of new men was a draft; at this stage sex was the Republicans who conscripted more aggressively.
In the middle of the year, just prior to the Battle of Ebro, the Republicans achieved their all-time high, commanding an army of slightly above ,; this was already no match for the Nationalists, who numberedIn late February their army was compared to more than revolution that number of Nationalists. In the moment of their final victory, the latter commanded overtroops.
The total number of Spaniards serving in the Republican forces was officially stated revolution ,; later scholarly sex estimated the number as "well over 1 million men",  though earlier studies claimed a Republican total of 1. From them, especially the USSR, the Republic received diplomatic support, volunteers, weapons and vehicles. Other countries remained neutral, this neutrality faced serious opposition from sympathizers in the United States and International Kingdom, and to a lesser extent in other European countries and from Marxists worldwide.
This led to formation of the International Brigadesthousands of foreigners of all nationalities who voluntarily went to Spain to aid the Republic in the fight; they meant a great deal to morale but militarily were not very significant. The Republic's supporters within Spain ranged from centrists who supported a moderately-capitalist liberal democracy to revolutionary anarchists who opposed the Republic but sided with it against the coup forces.
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Ideal for both solo play or with your lover, sex toys could bring a new dynamic to your sex life. Durex is about great, fun, safe sex. You can unsubscribe at any time. The agreement with Britain effectively destroyed Republican morale by ending hope of an anti-fascist alliance with Western powers. Franco's troops conquered Catalonia in a whirlwind campaign during the first two months of Tarragona fell on 15 January,  followed by Barcelona on 26 January  and Girona on 2 February.
Only Madrid and a few other strongholds remained for the Republican forces. On 26 March, the Nationalists started a general offensive, on 28 March the Nationalists occupied Madrid and, by 31 March, they controlled all Spanish territory. After the end of the war, there were harsh reprisals against Franco's former enemies. Many others were put to forced labour , building railways, draining swamps, and digging canals.
Hundreds of thousands of Republicans fled abroad, with some , fleeing to France. Of the 17, refugees housed in Gurs, farmers and others who could not find relations in France were encouraged by the Third Republic, in agreement with the Francoist government, to return to Spain.
Along with other "undesirable" people, the Spaniards were sent to the Drancy internment camp before being deported to Nazi Germany. About 5, Spaniards died in the Mauthausen concentration camp. After the official end of the war, guerrilla warfare was waged on an irregular basis by the Spanish Maquis well into the s, gradually reduced by military defeats and scant support from the exhausted population.
In , a group of republican veterans, who also fought in the French resistance against the Nazis, invaded the Val d'Aran in northwest Catalonia, but were defeated after 10 days.
The Republicans oversaw the evacuation of 30,—35, children from their zone,  starting with Basque areas, from which 20, were evacuated. This was against initial opposition from both the government and charitable groups, who saw the removal of children from their native country as potentially harmful.
On arrival two days later in Southampton , the children were dispersed all over England, with over children accommodated in Wales. Most were repatriated to Spain after the war, but some still remained in Britain by the end of the Second World War in Financing the war posed enormous challenge for both the Nationalists and the Republicans.
The two combatant parties followed similar financial strategies; in both cases money creation, rather than new taxes or issue of debt, was key to financing the war.
The second component of domestic resource was fiscal revenue. Neither side re-engineered the pre-war tax system; differences resulted from dramatic problems with tax collection in the Republican zone and from the course of the war, as more and more population was governed by the Nationalists.
A smaller percentage of domestic resources came from expropriations, donations or internal borrowing. None of the sides resolved to public borrowing and none floated debt on foreign exchange markets. Authors of recent studies suggest that given Nationalist and Republican spendings were comparable, earlier theory pointing to Republican mismanagement of resources is no longer tenable. Initial turmoil in the Republican zone contributed to problems, while at later stages the course of the war meant that population, territory and resources kept shrinking.
The death toll of the Spanish Civil War is far from clarified and remains—especially in part related to war and post-war repression—a very controversial issue. Many general historiographic works—notably in Spain—refrain from advancing any figures; massive historical series,  encyclopedias  or dictionaries  might not provide any numbers or at best propose vague general descriptions;  also more detailed general history accounts produced by expert Spanish scholars often remain silent on the issue.
The totals advanced usually include or exclude various categories. Scholars who focus on killings or "violent deaths" most typically list 1 combat and combat-related deaths; figures in this rubric might range from ,  to ,;  2 rearguard terror, both judicial and extrajudicial, recorded until the end of the Civil War: ,  to ,;  3 civilian deaths from military action, typically air raids: 10,  to 15, Entirely different approach is pursued by demographers; instead of adding up deaths from different categories, they try to gauge the difference between the total number of deaths recorded during the war and the total which would have resulted from applying annual death averages from the — period; this difference is considered excess death resulting from the war.
The figure they arrive at for the — period is ,; the figure for —, covering also the years of post-war deaths resulting from terror and war sufferings, is , Death totals remain debated.
British historian Antony Beevor wrote in his history of the Civil War that Franco's ensuing " white terror " resulted in the deaths of , people and that the " red terror " killed 38, Recent research has started to locate mass graves , using a combination of witness testimony, remote sensing and forensic geophysics techniques. Historians such as Helen Graham ,  Paul Preston ,  Antony Beevor ,  Gabriel Jackson  and Hugh Thomas  argue that the mass executions behind the Nationalists lines were organised and approved by the Nationalist rebel authorities, while the executions behind the Republican lines were the result of the breakdown of the Republican state and anarchy:.
Though there was much wanton killing in rebel Spain, the idea of the limpieza , the "cleaning up", of the country from the evils which had overtaken it, was a disciplined policy of the new authorities and a part of their programme of regeneration.
In republican Spain, most of the killing was the consequence of anarchy, the outcome of a national breakdown, and not the work of the state, although some political parties in some cities abetted the enormities, and some of those responsible ultimately rose to positions of authority. Conversely, historian, Stanley Payne argues that the political violence in the Republican zone was in fact organized by the left:.
In general, this was not an irrepressible outpouring of hatred, by the man in the street for his "oppressors", as it has sometimes been painted, but a semi-organized activity carried out by sections of nearly all the leftist groups.
In the entire leftist zone the only organized political party that eschewed involvement in such activity were the Basque Nationalists. Nationalist atrocities, which authorities frequently ordered so as to eradicate any trace of "leftism" in Spain, were common.
The notion of a limpieza cleansing formed an essential part of the rebel strategy, and the process began immediately after an area had been captured. The first three months of the war were the bloodiest, with 50 to 70 percent of all executions carried out by Franco's regime, from to , occurring during this period. Many such acts were committed by reactionary groups during the first weeks of the war.
Extensive killings of civilians were carried out in the cities captured by the Nationalists,  along with the execution of unwanted individuals. These included non-combatants such as trade-unionists , Popular Front politicians, suspected Freemasons , Basque, Catalan, Andalusian , and Galician Nationalists, Republican intellectuals, relatives of known Republicans, and those suspected of voting for the Popular Front.
Nationalist forces massacred civilians in Seville, where some 8, people were shot; 10, were killed in Cordoba ; 6,—12, were killed in Badajoz  after more than one thousand of landowners and conservatives were killed by the revolutionaries. In Granada, where working-class neighborhoods were hit with artillery and right-wing squads were given free rein to kill government sympathizers,  at least 2, people were murdered. There were fewer executions than usual, however, because of the effect Guernica left on Nationalists' reputations internationally.
Nationalists also murdered Catholic clerics. In one particular incident, following the capture of Bilbao , they took hundreds of people, including 16 priests who had served as chaplains for the Republican forces, to the countryside or graveyards and murdered them.
Franco's forces also persecuted Protestants, including murdering 20 Protestant ministers. The Nationalist side conducted aerial bombing of cities in Republican territory, carried out mainly by the Luftwaffe volunteers of the Condor Legion and the Italian air force volunteers of the Corpo Truppe Volontarie: Madrid, Barcelona , Valencia, Guernica , Durango , and other cities were attacked. The Bombing of Guernica was the most controversial.
It is estimated that between 38,  and 70,  civilians were killed in Republican-held territories, with the most common estimate being around 50, The Republican government was anticlerical, and supporters attacked and murdered Roman Catholic clergy in reaction to the news of military revolt.
Like clergy, civilians were executed in Republican territories. Some civilians were executed as suspected Falangists. Many killings were done by paseos , impromptu death squads that emerged as a spontaneous practice amongst revolutionary activists in Republican areas.
According to Seidman, the Republican government only made efforts to stop the actions of the paseos late in the war; during the first few months, the government either tolerated it or made no efforts to stop it. As pressure mounted with the increasing success of the Nationalists, many civilians were executed by councils and tribunals controlled by competing Communist and anarchist groups.
Some individuals fled to friendly embassies, which would house up to 8, people during the war. In the Andalusian town of Ronda , suspected Nationalists were executed in the first month of the war. Thirty-eight thousand people were killed in the Republican zone during the war, 17, of whom were killed in Madrid or Catalonia within a month of the coup. Whilst the Communists were forthright in their support of extrajudicial killings, much of the Republican side was appalled by the murders.
Some of those in positions of power intervened personally to stop the killings. In the anarchist-controlled areas, Aragon and Catalonia, in addition to the temporary military success, there was a vast social revolution in which the workers and peasants collectivised land and industry and set up councils parallel to the paralyzed Republican government. As the war progressed, the government and the communists were able to exploit their access to Soviet arms to restore government control over the war effort, through diplomacy and force.
The pre-war Falange was a small party of some 30,—40, members. The s also saw Spain become a focus for pacifist organisations, including the Fellowship of Reconciliation , the War Resisters League , and the War Resisters' International. Many people including, as they are now called, the insumisos "defiant ones", conscientious objectors argued and worked for non-violent strategies. Brocca argued that Spanish pacifists had no alternative but to make a stand against fascism.
He put this stand into practice by various means, including organizing agricultural workers to maintain food supplies, and through humanitarian work with war refugees. Throughout the course of the Spanish Civil War, people all over the world were exposed to the goings-on and effects of it on its people not only through standard art, but also through propaganda. Motion pictures, posters, books, radio programs, and leaflets are a few examples of this media art that was so influential during the war.
Produced by both nationalists and republicans, propaganda allowed Spaniards a way to spread awareness about their war all over the world. A film co-produced by famous early-twentieth century authors such as Ernest Hemingway and Lillian Hellman was used as a way to advertise Spain's need for military and monetary aid. In , George Orwell 's Homage to Catalonia , a personal account of his experiences and observations in the war, was published in the United Kingdom. In , Jean-Paul Sartre published in France a short story, "The Wall" in which he describes the last night of prisoners of war sentenced to death by shooting.
Pablo Picasso painted Guernica in , taking inspiration from the bombing of Guernica, and in Leonardo da Vinci 's Battle of Anghiari. Guernica , like many important Republican masterpieces, was featured at the International Exhibition in Paris. It is the reaper's symbol, the tool of his work, and, when his freedom is threatened, his weapon.
Payment for the war on both sides was very high. Monetary resources on the Republican side were completely drained from weapon acquisition. On the Nationalist side, the biggest losses came after the conflict, when they had to let Germany exploit the country's mining resources, so until the beginning of World War II they barely had the chance to make any profit.
The Spanish economy took decades to recover. The number of civilian victims is still being discussed, with some estimating approximately , victims, while others go as high as 1,, After the War, the Francoist regime initiated a repressive process against the losing side, a "cleansing" of sorts against anything or anyone associated with the Republic.
This process led many to exile or death. Exile happened in three waves. The first one was during the Northern Campaign March—November , followed by a second wave after the fall of Catalonia January—February , in which about , people fled to France. The French authorities had to improvise concentration camps, with such hard conditions that almost half of the exiled Spaniards returned. The third wave occurred after the War, at the end of March , when thousands of Republicans tried to board ships to exile, although few succeeded.
The political and emotional repercussions of the War transcended the National scale, becoming a precursor to World War II. However Stanley Payne suggests this isn't accurate, arguing that the international alliance that was created in December , once the United States entered WW2, was politically much broader than the Spanish Popular Front as it included conservative capitalist states such as Great Britain and the United States; indeed it included the equivalent of many forces on Franco's side.
After the War, Spanish policy leaned heavily towards Germany, Portugal and Italy, since they had been the greatest Nationalist supporters and aligned with Spain ideologically. However, the end of the Civil War and later the Second World War saw the isolation of the country from most other nations until the s, in which the American anti-Communist international policy favoured having a far-right and extremely anti-communist ally in Europe.
The Popular Front was an electoral alliance formed between various left-wing and centrist parties for elections to the Cortes in , in which the alliance won a majority of seats. Virtually all Nationalist groups had very strong Roman Catholic convictions and supported the native Spanish clergy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other civil wars in Spain, see Carlist Wars. War between the Republicans and the Nationalists in Spain from to Spanish Civil War.
Part of a series on the. Early history. Early modern. Transition to democracy Spain since By topic. Colonial history Economic history Military history. Events leading to World War II. Main article: Background of the Spanish Civil War.
The Church was a frequent target of the revolutionary left in the Republic and in the War. Main article: Spanish coup of July Main article: Spanish Civil War, Initial Nationalist zone — July Nationalist advance until September Nationalist advance until October Nationalist advance until November Nationalist advance until February Last area under Republican control.
Main article: Republican faction Spanish Civil War. Main article: Nationalist faction Spanish Civil War. Further information: Viriatos. Main article: International Brigades.
Area under Nationalist control. Area under Republican control. Main article: Spanish Civil War, — Main article: Evacuation of children in the Spanish Civil War. See also: White Terror Spain. See also: Red Terror Spain. Main article: Spanish Revolution of Main article: White Terror Spain. Political parties and organizations in the Spanish Civil War. The Popular Front Republican Supporters of the Popular Front Republican Nationalists Francoist The Popular Front was an electoral alliance formed between various left-wing and centrist parties for elections to the Cortes in , in which the alliance won a majority of seats.
It drew its main support from skilled workers and progressive businessmen. It drew its support from skilled workers, small businessmen, and civil servants. It controlled the autonomous government of Catalonia during the republican period. The two parties won the subsequent general election, but the PSOE left the coalition in It had majority support amongst urban manual workers. Anarchist groups. The anarchists boycotted the Cortes election and initially opposed the Popular Front government, but joined during the Civil War when Largo Caballero became Prime Minister.
Mujeres Libres Free Women : The anarchist feminist organisation. Founding part of ERC in , it sided with the Republican faction during the war. Basque nationalists. Put its religious disagreement with the Popular Front aside for a promised Basque autonomy. International Brigades : pro-Republican military units made up of anti-fascist Socialist, Communist and anarchist volunteers from different countries.
Formed in , the UME secretly courted fascist Italy from its inception. Already conspiring against the Republic in January , after the electoral victory of the Popular Front in February it plotted a coup with monarchist and fascist groups in Spain. Many army officers, aristocrats, and landowners were Alfonsine, but there was little popular support.
The Carlists were clerical hard-liners led by the aristocracy, with a populist base amongst the farmers and rural workers of Navarre providing the militia. Pelayos - militant youth movement, named after Pelayo of Asturias. Although they supported Franco's rebellion, the party was dissolved in , after most members and militants joined FE and Gil-Robles went to exile. The fascistised youth wing of the CEDA. In they suffered a drain of militants, who joined the Falange. Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia.
Madrid: Marcial Pons. My Mission to Spain. El Terror Rojo The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. New York: Penguin Books. The collapse of the Spanish republic, Origins of the civil war. Yale University Press, , pp.
Twentieth-century Spain: politics and society, Macmillan International Higher Education, , p. Cambridge University Press, , p. Franco: A personal and political biography. University of Wisconsin Press. Rivalry and revenge. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, , pp.
The Spanish civil war. University of Wisconsin Pres, , p. University of Wisconsin Pres. New York. Chapter Simone Weil: A Life. Schocken Books. Retrieved 8 May Queen's University, Belfast. Allison; Hogan, James December Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review. Irish Province of the Society of Jesus.
Archived from the original PDF on 5 December International Practices. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 3 August Spain and the great powers in the twentieth century. London; New York: Routledge. BBC website. Retrieved 6 June Retrieved on 2 July Taylor, English History — pp. La guerra que gano Franco. Madrid, Archived from the original on 11 August Madrid: La Esfera de los Libros.
Heroes of the Alcazar. Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 24 June Sex made planet Earth sexy. Written in a brilliantly engaging style by biologist Jules Howard, this fascinating and highly readable work covers the how and why of sex on Earth, in all its diversity.
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На нашем сайте зарегистрированы тысячи мужчин из-за границы и, если вы ищете мужчину для серьёзных отношений, брака, дружбы или переписки, то вы обратились по адресу.
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