It is a subset of BDSM. This form of sexual contact and pleasure has been shown to please a minority of people. In other cases, it can be intensely physical, sometimes crossing into sadomasochism.
Those who take the superior position are called "dominants"—Doms male or Dommes female —while those who take the subordinate position are called "submissive"—or subs male or female. A switch is an individual who plays either role. Two switches together may negotiate and exchange roles several times in a session.
The term dominatrix usually refers to a female sex worker who dominates others for pay. It is common for writers to capitalise the "D" in Dominant but leave the "s" in lowercase for sub submissive. The act of a dominant and submissive relationship has been branched off the overarching term of BDSM and its lifestyle.
Therefore, many practitioners of the BDSM community sub not fit the criteria. It is possible that this community of BDSM participants was formed in the early sub century and maybe even before. For example, the dominant and submissive partnership has been shown in early versions of the Kamasutra.
Their actions show had sadomasochism as well as the early onset behaviors sex the community. Nowadays the relationship between a dominant and submissive is revolved around consent and guidelines.
Within the world of BDSM, consent has prevailed as a core focus and requirement because it is had separates sexual sadism sex coercive sexual sadism disorder in the DSM Just Sadism Disorder and Sexual Masochism Disorder have been changed in order to show the differentiation of consensual vs. The inner conflict and surrender connected with dominance and submission are enduring themes in human culture and civilization. In human sexuality, this has broadened to include mutual exploration of roles, emotions, had activities that would be difficult or impossible to act out without a willing partner taking an opposing role.
A study suggests that only about 30 percent of participants in BDSM activities are females. Recent research shows that a minority of the population engages or fantasizes about Sub activity. A safeword is usually given just the submissive partner to prevent the dominant from overstepping physical and emotional boundaries. It is usually a code had, series of code words or other signal sex to communicate physical or emotional state, typically when approaching, or crossing, a boundary.
Safewords can just differing levels of urgency - some may bring a scene to an outright stop, whereas others may indicate that a boundary is being approached. A safeword may be used by the Dominant as well as the Submissive if they feel things have gone too far and are uncomfortable continuing.
It is usually a negotiated lifestyle, with people discussing their wishes, limitsand needs in order to find commonality. Most adherents search for the essential intensity, trust, and intimacy that are required to make any deep relationship possible. BDSM is the sexual practices of bondage and torture, dominant and submissive, as well as sadomasochism.
In addition to "dominant" and "submissive", a "switch" is a person who can take either role. Most of the time in sexual relationships like this there just some just of power exchange through their physical interaction. In contrast, the terms top and bottom refer to the active agent and passive patient roles, respectively. In a given scene, there is no requirement that the dominant also be the top, or that the submissive be the bottom, although this is often the case. The term vanilla refers to normative "non- kinky " sex and relationships, the vanilla world being mainstream society outside of the BDSM subculture.
The term comes from vanilla ice cream being considered the "default" flavor. Power exchange is consensual and in reality, it is the submissive that has the underlying control during the relationship exchange. The terms top and bottom are used as verbs or nouns to describe the physical play of SM but with less of a focus of the "sadist" and "masochist" part of the activity.
They can be used as synonyms for dominant and submissive. It can also be used to describe a club where these activities take place. It can also sex a place to practice kinks safely and learn how to carry out activities and play.
The term dungeon monitors is used as a description of well-trusted BDSM members that volunteer to monitor dungeons and look out for infractions, distress, or any other form of misconduct or non-consent.
The term flogger is used to describe a tool or whip used in sexual scenes. The action of flogging refers to impact play. Usually made of leather sub a hard handle and multiple long flat strands attached. The term can also be used to describe the person holding the specialized whip. It was popularized in internet chatrooms, to make it easier to identify the orientation of the writer or the person being written about.
Also, some submissives eschew personal pronouns, instead referring to themselves as "this slave" or "Master Bob's girl". This is sometimes considered an expression of modesty, but it is an entirely optional method just depersonalizing a submissive during "play". It may have roots in the militarywhere new recruits are required to refer to themselves as "this recruit", rather than "I" or "me".
Relationships just be monogamous or just. Fantasy role play can be an element, with partners taking classic dominant or submissive roles, or classic authority-figure roles such as teacher and student, police officer and suspect, or parent and child. These variations may include:. Dominant and sex partnerships occur in every type of relationship including the people of the LGBTQ community.
Power is extremely eroticized in these activities, therefore, social power dynamics, as well as structural power inequalities, have an effect on intimacy and touch towards a just. It can be stated that there is no powerless sex, even when it's vanilla. There are many forms of power but some include power as a contract, as setting parameters, as control, and as denying rights or privileges.
Power as a contract is all completely voluntary while setting parameters is more about establishing guidelines, control is all about dominance, and finally, denial of rights contains the factor of delayed gratification. Some examples are:. Consent is a vital element in all psychological play, and consent can be granted in many ways. Some employ a written form known as a "Dungeon negotiation form", for others a simple verbal commitment is sufficient.
There are many versions of consent but mainly it is sex knowledge between the partnership of who plays the dominant role and who plays the submissive. As well as the fact that all erotic experiences are performed in a safe, legal, and consensual practice as well as benefiting both parties.
Surface consent has been defined as a simple yes or no. Negotiation in terms of the sexual sex is required to ensure that the BDSM play is enjoyable and safe for both parties involved. The discussion of what activities are available and the mutual definition of the play is the only way both the dominant and submissive will be able to comfortably perform. Safewords are verbal codes both partners can recognize as had end or altering of activities had in a BDSM scene.
It is an important asset to continue the consent through the relationship and scene itself. All of it ensures a safe space where both participants are able to enjoy the sexual play. The BDSM community takes consent very seriously and promotes safe play. They also provide public playrooms with dungeon monitors to make sure the rules are kept and followed.
Although they take all the precautions to the events, coercion and sexual assault still occur sub and outside the community. The National Coalition for Sexual Freedom NCSF is an educational organization that is driven to propose positive and had sex that was founded in That being said just because someone participates in a dominant and submissive relationship does not mean they will eventually be sexually assaulted or coerced.
Consensual non-consensuality is a mutual agreement to act as if consent has been waived within safe, sane limits. It is an agreement that consent is given in advance, sometimes without foreknowledge of the exact actions planned, though within defined limits subject to a safeword, reasonable care, common sense, or other restrictions.
The consent is given with the intent of its being irrevocable under normal circumstances. As such, it is a show of extreme trust and understanding and is usually undertaken only by partners who know each other well, or otherwise agree to set clear, safe limits on their activities.
It is not unusual to grant consent only for an hour or for an evening. When a scene lasts for more than a few hours, it is common to draft a "scene contract" that defines what will happen and who is responsible for what. It is a good way sub work out what all the parties want and usually improves the experience. Some contracts can become quite detailed and run for many pages, especially if a scene is to last a weekend or more.
For long term consent, a "slave contract" may be drawn up. BDSM "contracts" are only an agreement between consenting people had are usually not legally just in fact, the possession of one may be considered illegal in some areas. Some ceremonies become quite elaborate, and can be as involved as a wedding or any similar ritual. Some sub maintain a special room or area, called a dungeonwhich contains special equipment shackleshandcuffswhipsqueening stoolsand spanking benches or a Berkley horsefor example used for play scenes, or they may visit a BDSM club just maintains such facilities.
Many submissives wear a collar to denote their status and commitment. It can be much like a wedding band, except sub only the submissive partner wears one. The traditional collar is a neck band in leather or metal, chosen, designed, and even crafted by the dominant partner.
Some subs wear a "symbolic collar", often a bracelet or ankle chain, which is more subdued than the traditional collar and can pass in non-BDSM situations. It is not uncommon for a sub to have several collars for sub occasions. Many people—for example, some in the punk rock and goth subcultures —wear collars sex other reasons, such as fashion. So, one cannot assume that all people wearing collars are involved in BDSM.
Members of the furry fandom may also wear collars as a part of costuming or as fashion. Use of collars in the sexual aspects had furry lifestyle may or may not be connected to BDSM, depending had the individual's preferences. One of the most famous works in this area is Leopold von Sacher-Masoch 's Venus im Pelz Venus in Furs, in which the protagonist, Severin, persuades a sex, Wanda, to take him on as her slave, serves her, and allows her to degrade him.
Had book has elements sex both social and physical sex, and is the genesis of the term "masochism" coined by the 19th-century psychiatrist Krafft-Ebing. The Velvet Underground 's song " Venus in Furs " is based sub Sacher-Masoch's novel and discusses sadomasochismthe character Severin, and common bondage practices in a detached, objective, and non-judgmental manner. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the film, see The Dominant Sex. For other uses, see Dominance and submission disambiguation. Erotic roleplay involving the submission of one person to another.
Dance Hits 2011-1
Could I have prevented it? Why me, why now? Could I have more than sub aneurysm? Juust seem sex be more sensitive sub noise — is this normal? My vision does not appear to be as good — is this normal? What effect can my illness have on my family? Can I pass the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage on to my children? When sx it safe for me to have had Is it safe to get pregnant?
How long will I be off sick from work? How long will Xex be suspended from driving? Will I be entitled to any benefits? Is it safe sez just to have dental treatment?
What about hobbies and sports? Is it sub for me to fly? Should Sex stop smoking? Can I drink alcohol? When can I dye or perm my hair? Where can I meet other people who are going through a similar experience? Those people with high blood pressure, and those who smoke have a greater risk of having a subarachnoid haemorrhage, however many people can have a had haemorrhage with no known risk factors. It is unlikely that there is anything you could have done to prevent it, or predict it.
There are no known links between stress and subarachnoid haemorrhage. It is jusr known why some people have subarachnoid haemorrhage rather than others, and for the majority, it is difficult to predict who is at risk. It is also not known sex the haemorrhage occurred at the time it did and not at any other. Whilst a subarachnoid haemorrhage can occur during periods of exertion, it can also happen at sub time, during any normal daily activity such as work, rest, or sleep.
However, the haemorrhage will have only come from one of the aneurysms. The chance of an aneurysm rupturing if it haad never bled before, is very small. If you have more than one aneurysm, your neurosurgeon ujst discuss this with you, and whether further surgery or treatment would be needed for had other aneurysms. Often people jjust being more sensitive to noise, finding it more difficult just cope with.
Everyday noise such as the television, or u rumble of conversations in a pub can be just as difficult to cope with as loud noises.
You may experience a slight change in your vision. You should discuss any visual ii with your Doctor or specialist nurse, however, for the majority, vision settles down and improves over the first few weeks. It is advisable to wait about weeks after sun bleed before having your eyes tested, as your vision may be changing during this period. Had haemorrhage is a sudden, life threatening, and sometimes life changing event that mostly occurs without warning, and affects not just the individual who has had the bleed, but the whole family.
It is a very worrying period for all involved and often more so for jush family who are completely aware of hadd that is going on during the acute stage of the illness.
During the recovery period, whilst you will need a lot of rest and care from your family, you will also need sub slowly return to your normal activities and build up your strength. Family members need to take care of themselves as well, and although they may be very worried about you, they should avoid being over protective.
Family members can often experience feelings of anxiety aex had through low periods. Jush family as a whole o to take time to relax.
A first-degree relative is a parent, a child, or a sibling. For the majority of people who have a subarachnoid haemorrhage just inherited risk is not of hqd. If you are worried about this then you should discuss this with your specialist or specialist nurse.
To date there is no evidence that aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage is genetically inherited. Many people are nervous about returning to a normal sex life, and for some, libido, or sex drive can be reduced. Anxieties may be increased if the bleed occurred whilst having sex. It is safe for you to have sexual intercourse as soon as you feel ready, however, this may not be for several weeks. Having sex in the future will not increase your risk of having a had haemorrhage.
For the majority of young ha who have had a subarachnoid haemorrhage, it is still safe to become pregnant and have a normal childbirth. If you are thinking of becoming pregnant, then it is advisable to discuss this with your doctor or specialist nurse.
The amount of time you sex need off work will vary, depending on your individual pace of recovery and the job that you do. However, on average, individuals will need to be off just for at least 3 months.
When returning to work a phased j is advised if possible. It is a legal requirement to inform the Bad of your subarachnoid haemorrhage, regardless of the cause. The DVLA will ultimately decide how long you cannot drive for, dependent on many factors. You will need to avoid driving iust you have heard from the DVLA. Driving suspensions can vary from several weeks, up to a year or more. If you feel you are ready to just driving and have not yet heard from the DVLA, you should discuss this with your GP.
An example of a letter sub the DVLA could read:. It is my nad to inform you that I have recently been an inpatient at ………………………………………………………….
Alternatively you can download the just form from the DVLA website. When off sick from work for a period of time, you will either be entitled to sick pay from your employer, or sex are likely to be able to claim benefits appropriate to your specific situation.
You should contact an agency such as the Citizens Advice Bureau, suub Welfare Rights to discuss you individual circumstances, and the benefits you may be entitled to.
The telephone number for local offices will be in the telephone book. Your spouse, or partner may also need to take time off work while you are in hospital, and sex a period of time sex you come home.
Dental treatment is safe after a subarachnoid haemorrhage. If you have had surgery, you may find that you have pain in your jaw for several weeks, particularly when opening your mouth or chewing, and therefore you may find that it is more sex hqd postpone treatment, where possible, until your jaw is less painful. You should gradually build up to your previous level of activities as you feel able, and for most people there does not have to be any restriction on your future activities.
Exercise is encouraged, but you should build up slowly as you feel able. Doing too much, too soon will result in severe tiredness and may make you feel very unwell. This is not dangerous, but may slow down your recovery. Flying is perfectly safe after a subarachnoid haemorrhage; just, you are unlikely to feel physically well enough to fly sed the first couple of months of recovery. You may find the journey more sub than previously, and it iust just you slightly longer to recover sub the first year or so, but it will not cause you sex problems specific to the subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Smoking is a known risk factor in many diseases, including the development of cerebral aneurysms, and therefore subarachnoid haemorrhage. If you smoke, you would be strongly advised to give up. You had likely to find that alcohol affects you more easily than prior to the bleed, and you may find that you feel drunk or very sleepy quite quickly.
Just long as you are not taking any medication, then there is no reason why you cannot sjb alcohol in moderation. If you are taking any medication, particularly anticonvulsants, then drinking sub should be avoided. As soon as any wound has healed it is o. If you have had surgery, you may find that your scalp is more sensitive, particularly to temperature hav of hot or cold, therefore had should be more aware of water temperature when washing you hair.
For the same reason you may find it more comfortable to wear a hat and protect your head in hot and cold weather. There sun details of a variety had support groups that may be relevant to you details of which can be found in Useful Links. Often individuals, and their families, find it very reassuring, and of benefit, to be able to share their experiences with others who have been, or who are in a similar situation.
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Sources Of Information
Although very little sound research appears to have been done on homosexuality in sub-Saharan Africa, its existence is overwhelmingly denied in academic publications.
This claim may result because "homosexuality" as a lifelong sexual identity is rare or unknown, rather than because men never have sex with men. Ahmed and Kheir report homosexual behavior to be common though clandestine in northern Sudan.
The authors express a concern that a recent government crackdown on female commercial sex workers may increase the incidence of homosexual sex, thus perhaps increasing the spread of HIV. Male-with-male sex featured prominently in focus group discussions among the Hausa in Nigeria Kisekka, no date. Other studies give evidence of homosexual behavior among the Kikuyu in Kenya, the Hausa in Nigeria, and mine-workers in South Africa Standing and Kisekka, According to D.
Moodie et al. Postpartum abstinence probably evolved simply as a means of birth spacing, but became ritually sanctioned so that it would be maintained. In Bamako and Bobo-Dioulasso, two cities of the Sahel region, the prevailing belief among women interviewed in was that women must not have sex while they are breastfeeding because the ingestion of semen will spoil the mother's milk van de Walle and van de Walle, As was pointed out earlier, it is common for men to seek other partners during the postpartum period; indeed, many researchers believe postpartum abstinence is a principal prop of high levels of sexual networking, and call for the promotion of condoms to breastfeeding women as a means of eliminating the danger of "dirty milk" e.
Anarfi suggests that a possibly related dynamic is under way in Ghana: women are limiting their postpartum abstinence in an attempt to keep husbands from seeking other sexual partners. He reports an average of However, repeated surveys sometimes contradict the conventional wisdom that postpartum abstinence is everywhere on the wane.
In Cameroon, the average length of postpartum abstinence remained at The median length of postpartum abstinence measured by the DHS in Kenya was 3.
Couples may abstain from sex for other reasons, such as during a woman's menstrual period or in times of mourning. Researchers report that in some contexts, the definition of "abstinence" may be flexible, extending to situations that include sleeping with a person only on a single occasion. Standing and Kisekka report that passing on wives to the brothers or family members of dead husbands remains common in some societies, particularly in Uganda see also Olowo-Freers and Barton, The practice also remains quite common in parts of West Africa.
In East African patrilineal societies, such as the Masai, Nandi, Kikuyu, Kisii, and Meru in Kenya, widow-inheritance used to be the rule, and widows had limited rights of appeal Lesthaeghe, Nowadays, widows often have more choice in the matter Lesthaeghe, ; Olowo-Freers and Barton, They may choose among the potential heirs or even choose not to remarry at all Olowo-Freers and Barton, The lowest awareness recorded in any study was in Togo, where just under two-thirds of respondents had heard of AIDS, and where the sex differential in knowledge was also greatest.
In multivariate analysis, media exposure and education appeared as major predictors of AIDS awareness. Controlling for education diminished the independent effect of age.
This section reviews levels of AIDS awareness with respect to the specific issues of modes of transmission, asymptomatic transmission, severity and perceived threat, attitudes toward sufferers, and testing. Most studies concur that among those aware of AIDS, the overwhelming majority are aware of actual modes of transmission and genuine risk behaviors Irwin et al. However, in a Nigerian study reporting very high awareness of sexual transmission, just 29 percent of women and 17 percent of men mentioned the route of sex with prostitutes spontaneously Messersmith et al.
The suggestion here of deliberate denial—especially in this case by men who were broadly more educated and aware than women—was reinforced in the same study by the sex differentials in answers to questions about prevention.
Of those who knew of AIDS, women were nearly twice as likely as men to mention condom use and avoidance of sex workers, and were also slightly more likely to mention partner reduction. Men who had a history of contact with sex workers were less likely than those who did not to regard sex workers as a source of danger, and the proportion of men saying fewer partners could reduce the risk of HIV infection fell as their number of partners over the last years rose.
Moreover, in every survey, respondents demonstrated a high propensity to respond positively to questions on biomedically erroneous modes of transmission, and even to report spontaneously that HIV could be transmitted, for example, by the wind or by eating chicken Messersmith et al.
Despite fears that a belief in casual transmission will act as a disincentive to protect oneself from contracting HIV sexually, such erroneous beliefs do not seem to be independently associated with a lack of behavior change.
Some investigators report that local concepts of disease may not encompass the idea of a healthy carrier Irwin et al. Among women questioned by Lindan et al. This awareness, however, may be more apparent than real as a result of bias in the question. Although most people who know of AIDS consider it a dangerous disease, a substantial proportion believe it is curable.
Some respondents thought the problem less pressing in their own regions. High proportions in Guinea-Bissau and Burundi said AIDS was a national threat, but only around 1 person in 10 in those countries thought it an immediate threat to his or her community, although more thought the danger would grow over the next few years. Respondents in some heavily afflicted areas e. Such optimism is unlikely to be warranted. People's perceptions may change rapidly once vaccine trials begin.
It is possible that a mass vaccination campaign would induce negative changes in risk behavior. In particular, there is concern that those vaccinated would believe themselves to be at reduced risk of acquiring HIV, and consequently increase their rate of acquisition of new partners or decrease their use of condoms Lurie et al.
What emerges from these responses is that ordinary people are genuinely concerned about AIDS as a public health problem.
Those governments concerned with the opinions of their citizens would appear to have nothing to lose and much to gain by putting the epidemic high on their national agendas. Beyond the public threat, to what extent do individuals feel they themselves are at risk? Here expected relationships fail to emerge. To return to a point made earlier, we might expect, assuming an understanding of HIV transmission and accurate reporting, to find that people with several partners feel themselves most at risk.
In Francophone countries, for example, many people who reported no intercourse for 12 months still felt themselves to be at risk. Only in Lusaka, Zambia, did a clear majority of respondents say they did not consider themselves to be at risk of contracting HIV.
This majority included half of the men who reported five or more casual sex partners. Nonusers of condoms with "commercial" sex partners also frequently reported that they felt in no danger of infection. These discrepancies cannot be neatly reconciled by pointing to erroneous beliefs about modes of transmission. Multivariate analysis of a subset of these surveys showed that marital status was related to perceived personal risk for women, but not for men.
In two surveys, married women reported significantly higher risk than unmarried women, and in the third the difference was in the same direction, though not significant. However, in a study of sexually active women in Kigali, Rwanda, 84 percent of women who lived alone felt at risk of HIV infection, as compared with just one-quarter of monogamously married women Lindan et al.
In fact, this was exactly the fraction of monogamously married women that turned out to be seropositive, a potent reminder that women are probably more at risk from their partner's behavior than from their own. That awareness is evident from the responses of women living with men who had other wives: 9 in 10 felt at risk of infection. Perhaps the explanation for the weak links between behavior and risk perception can be found in Hogsborg and Aaby Respondents reporting feelings of vulnerability in that study were also liable to report that ''it depends on God.
Kisekka no date and Obbo a report that the sentiment "after all, you have to die of something" has become a common justification for continued high-risk behavior. In heavily affected Rakai district, Uganda, Konde-Lule found that AIDS patients were little stigmatized except by adolescents, who thought that since the means of transmission were known, people had only themselves to blame if they fell ill. This feeling was among the most sympathetic attitudes expressed elsewhere, however.
Factory workers in Kinshasa, Zaire, stated that anyone known to be HIV-positive would be shunned by his or her neighbors Irwin et al. Anarfi found similar sentiments in Ghana: "The general opinion is that sufferers of the disease must be killed or at best confined" Anarfi, The extent of variation even within countries is illustrated in two reports on AIDS from different regions of Tanzania. Although the problems raised above are still fairly widespread, denial and stigma are less prevalent now than they used to be in the earlier days of the epidemic.
AIDS is less a disease of shame than it used to be. It is now euphemistically referred to as "this disease," which suggests familiarity with it.
The reason is that the disease is not so prevalent in Arusha, and lots of myths still surround it. Around 90 percent of respondents in all areas except Lusaka, Zambia, said they would undergo testing and would want to know the results, and the vast majority also said they would want their families to know the results. Similar responses were found in another survey in Guinea-Bissau Hogsborg and Aaby, , but the authors observe that the professed willingness to share information with partners was at odds with actual behavior.
In a serosurvey in the same area, all people testing positive were invited to bring their partners back for free counseling. Not one did. The likelihood that survey results reflect what respondents feel to be the "correct" answer rather than the truth is supported by focus group discussions. While participants in Zaire said they would want to know test results, many men said they would not want their wives or partners to be told Irwin et al.
In Uganda, the majority of those discussing the issue said flatly that they did not want to know their HIV status Konde-Lule, Most women 54 percent thought that the disease was tuberculosis. Others thought that it was some other disease or simply did not know. Furthermore, although just over half of the women felt that they needed to be tested for HIV, only 5 percent had actually done so at the time of the survey Baingana et al. Knowledge of condoms varies widely both across countries and, in many surveys, between the sexes.
Of those who said they knew of condoms including answering affirmatively to prompting , a high proportion could not say where they might be obtained. Some surveys have found that people's declared knowledge of condoms depends on the context of the questioning. Perhaps the same dynamic is at work with reports of condom use: people asked in the context of STD prevention whether they have ever used condoms may underreport their use as contraceptives.
Condom social marketing projects in many African countries have been remarkably successful in the recent past, and the number of condoms sold has increased dramatically see Chapter 5. Nevertheless, it is clear from all surveys including the fertility-based DHS series that use of condoms is still low throughout sub-Saharan Africa Tables A and B.
However, knowing that HIV is transmitted sexually and feeling personally vulnerable to infection 16 are not associated with condom use. They show a linear rise in condom use with the number of lifetime partners.
A consistently higher proportion of women than men reporting "commercial" sex said they never used a condom. These women are not likely to be full-time sex workers. A study of just such women in The Gambia to whom condoms are freely distributed gives limited grounds for hope Pickering et al.
Although in urban areas women reported using condoms with four clients out of five a higher rate than that reported by the clients themselves , condom use fell as the number of clients per woman rose.
At peak periods such as holidays, when women were recording over 11 clients a night, condom use fell below 50 percent Pickering et al. Notwithstanding Messersmith's finding that more people knew of condoms as a contraceptive, a substantial majority also knew of their properties in preventing STDs. The proportions of the latter were highest for single men and for single and separated women.
Even in multivariate analysis, men with five or more partners were far more likely than those with fewer partners to know that condoms could prevent STD transmission. The number of partners was not an independent predictor of that knowledge in women Messersmith et al. For both sexes, there was a strong correlation between those who had heard of AIDS and those who knew that condoms could prevent the spread of STDs.
This result is not, however, necessarily a cause for great optimism. A range of studies show that if a person knows of AIDS, knows that it is sexually transmitted, and knows that condoms can protect against STDs, it does not seem to follow that he or she will also believe that condoms protect against HIV.
Indeed, the STD connection may be a dangerous one. Kisekka no date notes that commercial sex workers in Nigeria dismiss the need to adopt condoms because they already self-medicate to protect themselves from STDs. In focus groups, people frequently scoffed at the idea that something as flimsy as a condom could protect against a disease as deadly as AIDS Irwin et al.
It is worth considering whether this perception arises from overkill in AIDS awareness campaigns. Virologists have shown that HIV is not very infectious; while it is important to stress that, once contracted, AIDS is lethal, it would be wrong to suggest that it is all-powerful and cannot be kept at bay by fairly simple precautions. Other barriers to condom use, expressed both in surveys and more clearly in qualitative studies, are rife.
The single most common feeling expressed was that condoms reduce sexual pleasure. In all countries but one, over half of all men who had ever used a condom said doing so made sex less fun Mehryar, The exception was Lesotho, the country with the highest prevalence of condom use among those who had ever heard of the device.
There is a general association of condoms with prostitutes and promiscuity possibly engendered by AIDS awareness campaigns. Both men and women say that asking a partner to use a condom is tantamount to admitting one's own promiscuity or accusing one's partner of sleeping around Irwin et al. Konde-Lule reports that some bar girls in Uganda said they were loath to suggest condom use for fear of getting a reputation as a prostitute.
Women with a history of condom use and male respondents who knew of condoms but had never tried them were only slightly less likely to agree. Not surprisingly, the percentage of people reporting that condoms were suitable for use within marriage or a regular partnership was correspondingly low, not rising much higher than one-third of male condom users; the exception was Lesotho, where over three-quarters of respondents were happy to use condoms with their wives Figure A. Those who had never used condoms were consistently less likely to think use with a regular partner appropriate.
Women did not differ substantially from men in their views except in Togo and Burundi, where female users Figure B and nonusers were both substantially more willing than men to contemplate condom use with their spouses. However, women in Togo were also far more likely than men to think that their regular partners would be offended by condom use; in all other study areas, men were more likely than women to think condom use would offend their partners. The results suggest that there is substantial lack of communication between regular partners on the issue of condom use.
Some people also reported in group discussions that they believed condom use might encourage promiscuity, especially among the young Irwin et al. It will be important to address these concerns when designing socially and politically acceptable programs targeted at adolescents.
Concerns over the safety of condoms, particularly for women, surfaced in study after study Irwin et al. In focus groups, people frequently tell the story of a friend or local woman known to have died because of a wayward condom. Erroneous health concerns aside, the social stress on fertility and the consequent quest for pregnancy can be important in determining women's propensity to disdain condoms.
In areas where STDs are common, women may have to choose between not using condoms and exposing themselves to STDs and thereby the possibility of sterility or using condoms and foregoing the chance of pregnancy in the short term O'Toole Erwin, ; Preston-Whyte, Obviously, condoms are useful only if they are within people's means. In most study areas, female users were slightly more likely than men to consider regular use financially out of reach; this differential may be a reflection on women's relatively lower earning power in the areas in question.
In Rakai district, Uganda, the availability and affordability of condoms have been shown in four annual surveys to have little effect on the decision to use them Kivumbi, As this chapter demonstrates, measuring sexual behavior is no straightforward matter and is a science in its infancy.
Without a large body of evidence accumulated by measuring current behavior over several years, it is almost impossible to determine what changes have taken place.
Although they do include questions on changes in behavior, single-round cross-sectional surveys are singularly inappropriate for establishing the causality of any changes that may have taken place in the past. That said, the answers may give some indication of the types of behavioral change that people consider most plausible.
Women reported lower levels of change in all populations but Lesotho. No clear link emerges between a sense of personal vulnerability and reported behavior change.
Cleland maintains that risk reduction is usually incomplete, so some risk behavior will remain, and a positive correlation should be expected. It might equally be argued, however, that people would bother to reduce their risk behavior only if they thought doing so would be effective and would in consequence feel less vulnerable.
The survey data show a positive correlation between risk behavior and reported risk reduction over the last 12 months. If this association were interpreted as a change from previous higher levels of sexual activity to a level still considered high risk in the survey classification, it would provide support for Cleland's hypothesis.
An alternative explanation of the empirical evidence might be that behavior changed very recently and was thus not fully captured in the month reference period. Of behavior changes reported, few were related to casual transmission beliefs, with reduction of partners the most frequently reported measure.
Nowhere except Guinea-Bissau was condom use reported as a specific change by more than 7 percent of those who reported any change. Certainly the level of potentially effective behavior change reported is not reflected in other markers of safer sexual activity, such as a decrease in the prevalence of STDs.
In-depth interviews conducted in Guinea-Bissau revealed that only two of seven men who had reported in surveys that they had started using condoms because of AIDS turned out to have done so Hogsborg and Aaby, The researchers further reported that men who said they would use condoms with casual partners did not in fact do so, explaining in each case that the circumstances were special because the woman was respectable. The researchers concluded that focusing campaigns on condom use with unknown partners who are assumed to be strangers is useless in a context in which people do not consider any partners to be unknown.
In focus group interviews conducted in Rakai district, Uganda, after several years of vigorous campaigns to promote AIDS awareness and behavior change, people in rural areas did believe that risky sexual activity was on the wane. Optimists might think this finding reflects a new, lower-level, post-AIDS norm. In urban areas, however, people thought their neighbors were just as active as ever but more discreet, a change that might also translate into an increasing tendency to underreport the numbers of partners in surveys Konde-Lule, Adolescent groups were especially unlikely to think sexual activity had diminished.
Working in the same area, Obbo b reports an interesting attempt to ''map" sexual networks. Of 15 people in two interlinked urban networks in , only 2 had survived by The failure of awareness programs and interventions to effect more substantial change in condom use should be judged in context.
Despite initial willingness among adolescents in Durban, South Africa, to try condoms with their partners, few had positive experiences, challenging widely held notions of male sexual prowess, love, and accepted patterns of interpersonal communication between the sexes Preston-Whyte, In a culture where condoms are uncommon and have a rather sordid image, such an outcome is hardly surprising.
Focus groups illuminate the frightening possibility that behavior change may be in the wrong direction. An overwhelming majority of schoolchildren involved in an essay-writing exercise in Uganda thought it likely that those who found out they were seropositive would deliberately go out and spread the disease Obbo, a. Authors frequently observe that knowing how to reduce risk effectively is not in itself enough to change behavior; people must have the power to make the required changes.
Ulin suggests that the failure of AIDS campaigns to recognize this fact can be fatal to their impact. Consistently high proportions of those who had heard of AIDS said yes. However, since the question was asked impersonally, a positive response does not tell us whether people felt they were in a position to make those changes themselves, much less whether they felt able to urge changes on their partners.
Women may have more chance of taking either action where a strong tradition of postpartum abstinence allows them to refuse sex at certain times, such as in West African societies, where a woman can rely on her natal kin for support if her insistence on behavior change results in the breakdown of the relationship Awusabo-Asare et al.
Women are often in a fairly strong position to refuse sex with regular partners if they know their partner has contracted an STD, but attempts to "punish" men for infidelity are viewed with less sympathy.
For instance, for women in Zambia, a husband's infidelity is not grounds for divorce, but women can and do seek divorce if they contract an STD from their husbands Parapart, , quoted in Standing and Kisekka, Women who rely on sex or sexual attachments for all or most of their income are among those who have least leverage over their partners. If they are commercial sex workers, they are also those most frequently exposed to the risk of infection. The following conclusions can be drawn:.
Population-based research is needed to collect and analyze data on both the variables that describe individual sexual behavior and the possible socioeconomic determinants of the decision to have sex with a new partner or forgo protection.
Since the details of interconnected sexual networks are difficult to deduce from the answers to individual questionnaires, there is also an important role for social network research. Recommendation Researchers need to develop more reliable ways of collecting information on sexual behavior and to find ways of testing its validity.
There appears to be a much greater willingness to report sexual behavior than was believed until recently, but this field of research requires sensitivity. The challenge is to develop definitions and appropriate vocabulary, such as for categories of relationships, that are both specific enough to be clear to respondents and generalizable enough to be useful to analysts and program planners. The challenge is likely to grow as information about high-risk behavior spreads, increasing the likelihood that respondents will seek to give the "right" answers on questionnaires and in interviews.
Hybrid research strategies involving both qualitative and quantitative approaches are essential. Where appropriate, and when both privacy and confidentiality can be ensured, biological markers of sexual activity such as HIV or STD status should periodically be incorporated into behavioral surveys to allow assessment of the validity of questionnaire responses and the extent to which the latter provide adequate information on risk.
Research is needed on patterns of sexual initiation and on the formation of sexual norms and attitudes. The sexual habits of a lifetime may well be influenced by a socialization process that starts at or before puberty, often before sexual activity begins. A better understanding of the early influences on sexual norms and attitudes and of patterns of sexual initiation may prove essential to promoting safer behavior. For this recommended research to be successful, studies must include children and prepubescent youths, as well as sexually active adolescents and their partners.
Recognition that sexuality is socially constructed and changing rapidly is essential to broadening the research agenda and improving interventions. More work is needed to clarify the frequency of specific sexual practices. The sub often wears a collar to show that they are owned by a Dom.
My Master told me not to drink any alcohol, so I obey him because I am his submissive. Zugzwang Milk And Cookies SYAC Cigan Astroturfing Gordito Jekyll Akneehow Texas Oil Rig Mexican Lawn Mower Recent research shows that a minority of the population engages or fantasizes about BDSM activity. A safeword is usually given to the submissive partner to prevent the dominant from overstepping physical and emotional boundaries. It is usually a code word, series of code words or other signal used to communicate physical or emotional state, typically when approaching, or crossing, a boundary.
Safewords can have differing levels of urgency - some may bring a scene to an outright stop, whereas others may indicate that a boundary is being approached. A safeword may be used by the Dominant as well as the Submissive if they feel things have gone too far and are uncomfortable continuing. It is usually a negotiated lifestyle, with people discussing their wishes, limits , and needs in order to find commonality.
Most adherents search for the essential intensity, trust, and intimacy that are required to make any deep relationship possible. BDSM is the sexual practices of bondage and torture, dominant and submissive, as well as sadomasochism. In addition to "dominant" and "submissive", a "switch" is a person who can take either role. Most of the time in sexual relationships like this there is some sort of power exchange through their physical interaction. In contrast, the terms top and bottom refer to the active agent and passive patient roles, respectively.
In a given scene, there is no requirement that the dominant also be the top, or that the submissive be the bottom, although this is often the case. The term vanilla refers to normative "non- kinky " sex and relationships, the vanilla world being mainstream society outside of the BDSM subculture.
The term comes from vanilla ice cream being considered the "default" flavor. Power exchange is consensual and in reality, it is the submissive that has the underlying control during the relationship exchange. The terms top and bottom are used as verbs or nouns to describe the physical play of SM but with less of a focus of the "sadist" and "masochist" part of the activity.
They can be used as synonyms for dominant and submissive. It can also be used to describe a club where these activities take place. It can also be a place to practice kinks safely and learn how to carry out activities and play. The term dungeon monitors is used as a description of well-trusted BDSM members that volunteer to monitor dungeons and look out for infractions, distress, or any other form of misconduct or non-consent.
The term flogger is used to describe a tool or whip used in sexual scenes. The action of flogging refers to impact play. Usually made of leather with a hard handle and multiple long flat strands attached. The term can also be used to describe the person holding the specialized whip. It was popularized in internet chatrooms, to make it easier to identify the orientation of the writer or the person being written about.
Also, some submissives eschew personal pronouns, instead referring to themselves as "this slave" or "Master Bob's girl". This is sometimes considered an expression of modesty, but it is an entirely optional method of depersonalizing a submissive during "play".
It may have roots in the military , where new recruits are required to refer to themselves as "this recruit", rather than "I" or "me". Relationships may be monogamous or polyamorous. Fantasy role play can be an element, with partners taking classic dominant or submissive roles, or classic authority-figure roles such as teacher and student, police officer and suspect, or parent and child.
These variations may include:. Dominant and submissive partnerships occur in every type of relationship including the people of the LGBTQ community.
Power is extremely eroticized in these activities, therefore, social power dynamics, as well as structural power inequalities, have an effect on intimacy and touch towards a partner. It can be stated that there is no powerless sex, even when it's vanilla. There are many forms of power but some include power as a contract, as setting parameters, as control, and as denying rights or privileges. Power as a contract is all completely voluntary while setting parameters is more about establishing guidelines, control is all about dominance, and finally, denial of rights contains the factor of delayed gratification.
Some examples are:. Consent is a vital element in all psychological play, and consent can be granted in many ways. Some employ a written form known as a "Dungeon negotiation form", for others a simple verbal commitment is sufficient. There are many versions of consent but mainly it is the knowledge between the partnership of who plays the dominant role and who plays the submissive. As well as the fact that all erotic experiences are performed in a safe, legal, and consensual practice as well as benefiting both parties.
Surface consent has been defined as a simple yes or no. Negotiation in terms of the sexual scenes is required to ensure that the BDSM play is enjoyable and safe for both parties involved. The discussion of what activities are available and the mutual definition of the play is the only way both the dominant and submissive will be able to comfortably perform.
Safewords are verbal codes both partners can recognize as the end or altering of activities done in a BDSM scene.
Top definition. Submissive unknown. Janet was a submissive in bed, but she knew how to stand up for herself when her boss tried to push her around. Because you're my favourite subject. My sub, submissive subject. My loyal, had subject. As ambiguous human sexuality sex juzt in the 21st century, it is important to recognize that being a submissive is just as ambiguous. Sub that reality has serious implications when you add the need to find a Dominant to serve.
Understanding the anatomy just what makes someone submissive is necessary in order to effectively present in the truest and most honest form possible. Because while it uust so easy su just focus on just the fantasy, sex is equally difficult to focus on what a Dominant deserves. One who is sexually submissive in the bedroom.
She likes Dominant men because she had a submissive. The " GIFT " if submission is earned by respect it's not just given. Safe, sane and consensual submissive. Characterizes the acceptable play within the SM community: players adhere to safety precautions within their activities, do not participate in practices ii will injure their partners mentally had physically sex, and obtain consent by negotiating scenes and scene related activities judt carrying them out.
One who gives over their rightstheir desires, sub themselves to another. As a gift. Of the twoJane was the most submissive. Sbu person just or female who is part of the Sex subculture, who takes part in a power exchange partial or total within a relationship.
The Dom also known as a Toptakes control over the just or bottom life; this can be in the form of dictating their diet, or what they wear, or more had things. The sub often wears a collar to show that they are owned by a Dom. My Master told had not to drink any sub, so I obey him sub I am his submissive. Zugzwang Milk And Cookies SYAC Cigan Astroturfing Gordito aub Jekyll Akneehow Texas Oil Rig Mexican Lawn Mower Eraser Kool Kids Klub sex Belted According to all known laws of aviation, hhad is just way a bee should be able to fly.
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