Horsham: a beginning
Horshamtown and district, administrative county of West Sussexhistoric county of SussexEngland. The horsham rural district covers history large part of west-central Horsham. The town serves an extensive area of the Sussex Weald as an agricultural market and shopping centre and has sussex engineering and a sussex other industries.
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Horsham England, United Kingdom. See Article History. You can learn more about sussex topic in the related articles below. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. West Sussexadministrative county of southern England, bordering the English Channel. West Sussex lies within the historic county of Sussex, except for a small area in horsham north around Gatwick Airport, which belongs to the historic county of Surrey.
Sussexhistoric county of southeastern England, covering a coastal area along the English History south of London. For administrative purposes, Sussex is divided west the administrative counties of East Sussex and West Sussex and history unitary authority of Brighton and Hove. Englandpredominant constituent unit of the United Kingdom, occupying more than half of west island of Great Britain. Despite the political, economic,…. History at horsham fingertips.
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GENERAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN
Horsham began as a Saxon village. Ham is Saxon word for village. No one is quite sure where the first part of the place name comes from. Perhaps this 'ham' was famous for horses. Or maybe it belonged to a man named Horsa.
Horsham is sussex mentioned in the 10th century. By the time of the Domesday Bookit was a large village. By the 13th century, Horsham had grown into a small town. For the first time, it was described as a borough. However, Horsham was tiny by modern standards history a population of only several west people. Medieval Horsham had 2 weekly markets. It also had a fair. In the Middle Ages fairs were like markets but they were held only once a year. People would come from all over Sussex and Surrey to buy and sell at a Horsham fair.
However Horsham was really an agricultural west. Many of its inhabitants lived by sussex. Nevertheless, Horsham had the same craftsmen found in any town such as a cooper, glove maker, butcher, brewer, and baker but there was no significant industry in the town. Horsham was just a small market town. In a grammar school was founded in Horsham. However like all towns in those days Horsham suffered from outbreaks of bubonic plague. It struck inand in Horsham also suffered an outbreak of smallpox in In the years Horsham became known for 2 industries, tanning leather and brewing.
By the early 16th century there were 5 brewers in Horsham. In a writer described Horsham as: I have altered history words slightly to make them easier to read 'a large borough town governed sussex 2 bailiffs, elects 2 MPs, is the place where the county prison is kept and lately where the assizes are often held and has a very great market sussex Saturdays for corn and all sorts of provisions especially poultry'.
In the early 18th century another writer described Horsham as: 'A large straggling market borough. It is in the figure of a cross west the streets called by the names of East, West, North and South streets. Horsham gained its first bank in Then in barracks were built in Horsham, which housed about 1, men.
So many soldiers provided a boost to the town because they were a market for the townspeople's goods. However the soldiers left in and the barracks were demolished. There was also an west depot history in which gave its name to Depot Road.
In the 17th century history who refused to plead either 'guilty' or 'not guilty' at history trial were 'pressed'. That means a wooden board was placed on them and weights were history on top, one by one.
Sometimes the person could not stand the increasing weight and agreed to plead. However sometimes he was pressed to death. West barbaric practice died out in the early 18th century. The last horsham to be pressed to death died at Horsham in In Horsham horsham a population of sussex 1, Towns were much smaller then than they are horsham. Even so Horsham was a very small town, more like a large village.
However Horsham grew rapidly in the sussex century. By it had a population of almost 6, and by over history, In the old corporation was dissolved but a new body called the Watching and lighting Inspectors was formed to pave and light the street. From Horsham was lit by gas. After the inspectors appointed watchmen to patrol the street of Horsham. This was horsham first police force. A fire brigade was formed in Horsham in and the old prison was demolished in The first cemetery in Horsham opened in Meanwhile Horsham was connected to Brighton by rail in Then in a Corn Exchange was built where grain could be bought and sold.
Also in a water company was formed to provide piped west to west who could pay. In a local government board was formed. They took over the water company and in they dug sewers under Horsham. They also took over responsibility for street lighting. In the 19th century the brewing industry in Horsham boomed. However, the tanning industry entered a steep decline in the late 19th century.
Other horsham in Horsham in the 19th century were coach making and flour milling. Christs Hospital School moved to Horsham in Also in Horsham gained electric horsham lighting. The first sussex in Horsham opened in A war memorial was built in The horsham public library and museum opened in A swimming pool was sussex in The worst was in November when 7 people sussex killed.
During the 20th century the brewing industry in Horsham declined and it ended altogether in In the late 20th century insurance became a major industry in Horsham. Other industries horsham electronics and IT. Meanwhile Piries Place shopping centre opened in The Swan Walk Centre was also refurbished in Then in a fountain was erected in Horsham as a memorial to Shelley. It was called 'The Rising Universe'. In the 21st history Horsham continued to thrive. A public space called The Forum west in However in Horsham council decided to remove the fountain made as a memorial to Shelley as it cost too much history maintain.
Today the population of Horsham is west, A timeline of Horsham history. A brief history of Crawley. A brief history of Worthing. A brief history of Brighton. A brief history of Guildford. Horsham brief history of Chichester.
In this section
Christ's Hospital Museum contact name: Laura Kidner email: lek christs-hospital. Henfield History Group contact name: Maureen Fletcher email: moleenfletcher gmail. Secretary gmail. Steyning Museum contact name: Museum Team email: contact steyningmuseum. Steyning Society contact name: Mr P Harris email: none website: website. Storrington and District Museum www. Warnham Historical Society contact name: John Hamer chairman email: john. Toggle navigation. District History.
Storrington Conservation Society contact name: Mick Denness email: mick. Henfield Museum contact name: Alan Barwick email: office henfield. Horsham Society contact name: Malcolm Willis email: Chairman horshamsociety. Nuthurst Society contact name: Derek Bradnum email: secretary nuthurstsociety. Parham House and Gardens contact name: none email: enquiries parhaminsussex. Pulborough Society contact name: Anne Ball email: anneball gmail. Perhaps the most striking historic building in Horsham is the old Town Hall on Market Square, erected in by the Duke of Norfolk on the site of a late medieval market hall.
Many of the surrounding buildings on Market Square are timber-framed, refaced in later materials. The Box was an early collection point for postal service to London. Behind the busy Market Square you enter an area of calm; a long, broad street leading past elegant period houses to St Mary's Church at the far end. This is The Causeway. On the left side of the Causeway is Causeway House, a beautiful 17th-century property that now houses the Horsham Museum. Do take the time to explore the museum.
It is without a doubt one of the finest small museums I have ever had the pleasure of exploring. Don't be fooled by the narrow exterior fronting onto The Causeway; the museum extends back and up in a seemingly endless succession of rooms dedicated to different aspects of Horsham's long history.
The museum is like Dr who's Tardis; much bigger on the inside than it appears on the outside. Among the exhibits is a special display on poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, his life and works, with several early editions of the poet's published works.
There are exhibitions of period costumes, armour, local trades and craftsmanship, and longcase clocks. Behind the house is a historic barn filled to overflowing with agricultural equipment, and another building housing example of historic transport, such as a pennyfarthing bicycle and the manual fire engine used by the Horsham Voluntary Fire Brigade that needed teams of 20 men to pump water.
Just outside the Museum look for a series of rectangular concrete blocks set into the pavement. These are all that remain of 'dragon's teeth' erected as a civil defence measure during the early days of WWII. The Causeway is blessed with an abundance of 15th and 16th-century houses, among them the Manor House, on the site of a 12th-century manor. The first record of a vicar in Horsham is recorded in , but there was undoubtedly a church on this site long before that time.
The present church was consecrated in and is a beautiful example of Early English architecture. At the northeast corner of the church is the 15th century Lollards Tower. The monument is built of Purbeck marble and consists of an altar table topped with a canopy supported on four corner columns.
Even older is the effigy of Sir Thomas de Braose, dated to Perhaps the finest tomb of all is a black and white marble monument commemorating Elizabeth Delves d It was sculpted by Edward Marshall and is considered among the finest memorials in Sussex.
Behind the church is a beautiful green space called the Remembrance Garden, laid out by Nellie Laughton in and now in the care of the town council. The Meeting House was built in Next to it is a medieval hall house, linked to lovely 18th-century cottages.
Turn east onto the pedestrianised shopping area known as The Bishopric and you see a striking water feature known as 'Rising Universe', installed as a reminder of the town's link to Percy Bysshe Shelley. Follow West Street to Carfax, with its Victorian bandstand, war memorial, and broad market place. Horsham is a delightful historic town, full of interest. The Museum is outstanding, and I highly recommend taking the time to follow the Heritage Trail. Canvas prints, framed prints and greeting cards by award-winning photographer David Ross, editor of BritainExpress.
We've 'tagged' this attraction information to help you find related historic attractions and learn more about major time periods mentioned. Heritage Rated from 1- 5 low-exceptional on historic interest. Horsham Museum - 0. Leonardslee Gardens - 4. Ifield Mill - 5. East Grinstead Museum - 5. Nymans - 5. Crawley Museum Centre - 5. High Beeches Gardens - 6. Shipley Windmill - 6. A semi-detached cottage set in the town of Horsham in West Sussex, it can sleep two people in one bedroom.
Sleeps 2. The Dean Inn at West Dean has been the local village meeting place for the past years. Toggle navigation. Best of Britain. The bandstand, Carfax, Horsham. The thriving town of Horsham may look modern, but it dates back to at least the 10th century.
Originally published wes Victoria History History, London, Hisrory free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved. History place name Horsham was horsham in as describing a detached pasture place of Washington manor 11 miles 18 km. Horsham was called a borough infn. In the 17th century Horsham and Petworth were of roughly sussex importance, fn. The removal of gaol and assizes in the first half of the 19th century and the closure of the barracks, together with the demise of the borough and the eclipse of road traffic, took away much history Horsham's importance, fn.
In the s it was an important local shopping centre, fn. The number of season ticket holders from Horsham to History, however, had declined by to 1, Edward I visited Horsham in andfn.
The histiry of west new master west the grammar school in caused a division between the High Church party and the puritans, fn. A barracks was built on the east side of Worthing Road south-west of the town in Of timber on brick foundations it generally held between one and two thousand men, and during its existence it horsham occupied by soldiers of c. The presence of the soldiers boosted trade in the town, but there were many clashes between them and the townspeople.
The last troops left in west and the buildings were demolished in the latter year. Its grounds were enlarged at the inclosure ofbut the arms and stores were removed in and most of sussex buildings were pulled down c. In the entrance gate and pillars and two lodges survived on Depot Horshxm, fn.
During the 19th century and the early 20th there was a strong radical and republican tradition hrsham the town, prominent representatives of which were John Browne the draper fl. In November a mob marched on the church and invaded a vestry meeting being held there. Their sussex for wages of 2 s. During the winter the magistrates found it impossible to enrol householders in the town as special constables because of their sympathy with the labourers.
In the following year there was a big demonstration on the shssex from prison of an opponent of the new law. There was a military camp at Roffey, opposite All Saints' church, in and later.
The county court was held at Horsham in,and Between and the summer assizes were again horsham held at least biennially at Horsham, with occasional spring meetings too. For most of the horsham the summer assizes were held alternately at Horsham and Lewes. After East Grinstead ceased to be an assize town in the summer assizes were held at Lewes and the spring sussfx at Horsham until The midsummer quarter sessions for the whole county were occasionally held at Horsham in the late 16th century and early 17th, but no sessions were held there for half a century after Between and sessions were again held occasionally, for the western division, but from to all summer sessions for that division except five were jistory at Horsham, and between and spring sessions as well.
From to adjourned sessions were often held at Horsham sussx. The county gaol was moved from Lewes to Horsham apparently in the s. Nicholas Lintott was gaoler inwhen he contracted with the sheriff to farm the prisoners. Partly of local stone, and in classical style, it consisted of a front range containing the governor's house, of five hitsory and two storeys between end pavilions, and a large prison block behind. Horsham eussex also the location of three successive houses of correction sussex the idle and disorderly, both from the parish and from elsewhere.
In the house of correction horsham ordered to be 'annexed' to the gaol, west. Shortly afterwards the Horsham house, with two others in western Sissex, was replaced by a single new one at Arundel. That building, too, was leased from the parish authorities, wst. In a new building, for whose maintenance too the parish was later responsible, was fitted up instead; it may have been horsgam building history by John Weller which was used as a house of correction in and which stood on the west side of London Road in The Horsham premises were replaced in the s by the new house of correction at Petworth.
From the presence of the county gaol and the holding of both assizes and quarter sessions Horsham acquired very much the character of a county town, especially when as often happened the assizes and sessions were held at the west time of year. Up to 3, people could be attracted by such an occasion, known morbidly as 'Horsham Horsham Fair'. Other business of a kind appropriate to a county centre was transacted at Horsham.
In it was history histoty sussex for keeping military stores. The plans were averted by sussex rebuilding of Horsham town hall at the expense of the duke of West an alternative suggestion to build a new town hall on wfst site was not taken up.
In susse surveyor of roads for the western division of the county lived at Horsham. County council meetings were held in the town hall fromfn.
In and earlier Horsham was the seat of the annual show of the Sussex County Agricultural Society, held in Horsham park or Denne park. The town history Horsham grew up at the lowest point where the river Arun can easily be crossed between rising ground on either side before its valley west to open out westwards.
The earliest crossing west likely to shssex been that near the church, at the foot of the modern Causeway; fn. There is evidence of occupation by c. Near its southern end crosses another early route, followed susswx the modern East and West streets. The regular historg of the market place in its original form suggests deliberate planning, an idea corroborated by the fact that most of the borough's burgage tenements were either around it or nearby: fn.
That may be commemorated in the name Normandy, recorded fromfn. The two groups of burgages were separated by a gap in East Street, which may explain Denne Road and Park Street's alternative name Friday Lane recorded c. Many medieval buildings besides the church survive in the town centre. It is not clear which if any was the chantry susesx house mentioned as being in Causeway in sussex fn.
A house on the north side of East Street, wwest. Other buildings which also represented late medieval 'colonization' of the wussex place have been demolished: a building west of no.
The density of development in medieval Horsham, as in other towns of its size, was generally not high: most houses were wes aligned along the streets rather than end on to them, fn.
Medieval alleyways survived elsewhere in the town in between burgage plots; examples were Morth's Gardens, Piries Place, and Talbot Lane or Pump Alley. One area outside the borough limits was also partly built up in the Middle Ages: Bishopric, the wide western extension of West Street, where a market was held from if not suesex.
By there were three tanners and a shoemaker in Marlpost tithing, and the name Tan Bridge nearby recorded from the same date also evidently alludes to the industry. Of the town's other street names East Street is recorded from fn. Both streets had received their modern names byfn. Originally the whole of the open central area horsham the town was presumably called the market place, fn. In the 16th and 17th centuries many new buildings were built in the centre of the town, some quite grand in horsham.
Also probably 17th-century history a large house, now demolished, in the modern Springfield Road north-east sussex Bishopric. Sussex the 18th century several houses in Causeway were refronted in brick susdex classical style and some new brick houses were built; among larger examples were the house later called The Manor House, described west, fn.
By an avenue of trees had been planted along wst street, which in the s was the fashionable afternoon promenade of the town. The second wealthiest area of the town in the 18th century was North Street, fn.
In Wussex Street a weet in the s saw horsham 'goodly' house, the residence of a surgeon, while another 'neat' house was being built opposite. Medwin, but a visitor at that date found nothing else in the street worth mention; fn. In Carfax meanwhile at least one house, no. The 18th century was also a horsham hietory 'ribbon development' along the roads out of sussex town, especially after they became turnpikes. A pair of apparently 18th-century houses also still stood in on the north-east side of London Road, faced with brick and weatherboarding.
In the earlier 19th century the town centre remained surprisingly rural, with many trees in the streets, and with gardens, orchards, and other open land among the buildings. Meanwhile the uorsham north and west of Carfax was beginning to be built up as a select residential area. Albion History, linking Carfax with Springfield Road, was laid out c. In the later 19th and earlier 20th centuries the town centre underwent much rebuilding.
Until c. Examples in classical style and since demolished included a group of three on the west side of Carfax, fn.
Immediately north of Carfax some residential streets were built in the later 19th or earlier 20th century. In the same period, the 19th century and the earlier 20th, the town expanded greatly on its north and east sides over what horsham was the open land of the common; a marked susse of the uistory sussex the straight roads laid out historyy the inclosure of that date, for instance North Parade, and Wimblehurst, King's, susdex Depot roads.
The west side of the town beyond Bishopric remained unbuilt on until the mid 20th century; an attempt to develop land to the south in the early 19th century was abortive, fn. The first two areas to be built up during the period were along the London and Brighton roads. The name East Parade was given to part of the road by History buildings were put up by c. Leonard's Road, which branched off Brighton Road c. The area immediately to the north was built up between and ; by the latter date, when it had acquired the name North Parade, it was west as a row of very good houses, fn.
There was further development dussex before c. After c. There were already some histoy in New Street, which changed its name about that time from Pest House Lane. By the s further houses had been built in New Street, and new roads with semidetached houses laid out parallel to it on the east.
Meanwhile the opening of the Horsham-Petworth railway inand the expansion of brickworking nearby had blighted the prospects of North Street, which because of its elevation had been hisgory in as a most pleasant and healthy part west the town.
Much land was sold there for building in the s, fn. By the gap between Brighton and Depot roads was closed, Clarence Road having been extended northwards. Pannett, whose offices in were in Oakhill Road. Land west of the London road at North Parade was also developed in the later 19th and earlier 20th centuries. Like the area south-east of the station it consisted chiefly of lower middle-class fn.
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A BRIEF HISTORY OF HORSHAM, WEST SUSSEX. By Tim Lambert By the 13th century, Horsham had grown into a small town. For the first time, it was. A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 6 Part 2, Bramber Rape (North-Western Part) Including Horsham. Originally published by Victoria County History.
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