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Welcome to LinuxQuestions. You are currently viewing LQ as a guest. By bytesex our community you will bytesex the ability to post topics, receive our newsletter, use the advanced search, subscribe to threads and access many other special features. Registration is quick, simple and absolutely free. Join our community today! Note that registered members see fewer ads, and ContentLink is completely disabled once you log in.

Are you new to LinuxQuestions. If you need to reset your password, click here. Having a problem logging in? Please visit this page to clear all LQ-related cookies. Introduction to Linux - A Hands bytesex Guide This guide was created as an overview of the Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter.

For more bytesex trainees it can be a desktop reference, and a collection of the base knowledge needed to proceed with system and network administration.

This book contains many real life examples derived from the author's experience as a Linux system and network administrator, bytesex and consultant. They hope these examples will help you to get a better understanding of the Linux system and that you feel encouraged to try out things on your own. Click Here to receive this Complete Guide absolutely free. I'm trying to compile hping3 on CentOS 5. The pipe symbol in parenthesis is a short way of saying "either-or". However, exactly where to add it can be a little tricky, since the Makefile will usually be regenerated bytesex Makefile.

You're probably better off editing bytesex. Ahhhh, just bytesex grep, I should have known that. I really appreciate the help. Thread Tools. BB code bytesex On. Smilies are On. All times are GMT The time now is PM. Open Source Consulting Domain Registration. Visit Jeremy's Blog. Search Blogs. Mark Forums Read. User Name. Remember Me? Linux - Software This forum is for Software issues.

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The results in the table will be the same if the same data is input to the ntohXX. In fact, the implementation for ntohs could be implemented like this:. I have experienced these two issues, related to the byte-order conversion functions, creeping into a project.

This message structure and byte-order conversion function will be used for reference to demonstrate these problems. If a strong pattern of implementation is not created and followed with the message transport process, more care will be required to keep track of the state of a message buffer.

Has the buffer already been converted to network byte-order? If a buffer that has already been converted to network byte-order is converted a second time, the result will be returned to the host byte-order. Many times the field types in a message my change. It is possible for the type of field to be changed, but the byte-order conversion function to remain unchanged. This is especially true because of the tendency to use explicit casts with these functions.

If this change goes undetected, data values will be truncated and incorrect values will be transported across the network. One way to improve the maintainability of your code is to use solutions that are highly consistent.

When compared to the traditional approach, our solution will have a more consistent implementation by the method that we handle the context sensitive information of the solution. I am referring to: 1 the data-type to be converted, 2 the host byte-order, 3 the target byte-order of the data. If any of the field types in our DataMsg struct changes, our converter function will continue to be valid without any required changes.

The EndianSwap function simply knows what to do. This does not yet resolve the issue of inconsistently converted messages. We will address that after we have a robust and consistent method to swap the byte-order of data fields.

We can create a function like EndianSwap that will take the appropriate action regardless of the type of field passed into it. The socket byte conversion functions are written to be compatible with C. Therefore, a different name must be given to each function, for each type supported. This still leaves the problem of calling the convert function an even number of times returns the data format to it's original type. We will revisit this once I create the first part of the solution.

Because a large variety of types may be encoded in data, we will start with a template-based approach to create a generic EndianSwap function. This will allow us to create sets of solutions and reuse them, rather than duplicating code and giving a new function prototype to each function. The base implementation will provide an empty solution that simply returns the input value. The compiler will optimize away the function call and result assignment.

This effectively turns this call into a no-op:. A specialization of this template will be implemented for each type that requires byte-order conversion logic. Here is the implementation for unsigned bit and unsigned bit integers. I chose to implement my own set of byte-order swap functions for a couple of reasons.

To remain independent of system socket libraries. The functions are not portable implemented or available There is now only one byte-order conversion function rather than two with different names Added flexibility; The socket functions become no-ops on big-endian solutions, where as EndianSwap will always swap. Another way we will improve upon the existing byte-order conversion functions is by providing a specialization for the signed types.

This is necessary to eliminate the need to provide a cast with calls to these functions. The implementations for the signed versions can be implemented in terms of the unsigned definitions.

However, care must be taken to avoid conditions that would create an integer overflow condition. Overflows with signed integers results in truncated data. We now have a consistent method to swap the byte-order for any data-type that we choose. However, we still need to account for the other types of context sensitive information for this solution to be useful.

Here is a first attempt to create a solution that incorporates all of the pieces:. At this point we have two separate functions, that both handle two cases.

This manages our four distinct possibilities for combinations of context-sensitive information. However, this is not the final solution. In fact, this solution has all of the same issues as the socket library calls, except we can handle any type of data. We have even added a runtime cost to the implementation with an if statement.

We are going to put the compiler to work for us to improve this solution. Templates are an excellent option when you have all of the information you need at compile-time. The solution in the previous step used two runtime mechanisms to manage the context-sensitive information, a function call and a conditional. Let's create a template that will let the compiler decide if it is necessary to swap the order of bytes for a data-type rather than a runtime conditional statement.

Template meta-programming solutions require all of the information to be known up front, and any decisions need to be calculated by the compiler. Therefore, constants and data-types become the primary mechanisms used to store information rather than variables. The compiler must have all of the answers fixed in-place to determine which pieces to use for construction of the logical statements.

We now have a new struct with a static function to conditionally swap the order of bytes in a data-type. Let's connect it to the final piece of the solution.

bytesex

Byte-gender; not, "Yes! Now that I have your attention let's solve a relatively simple problem, byte sex. A less sensational name for this concept is byte endianess. This is one of byhesex concepts that you should at least be aware of, even if you don't have to pay much attention to it in your day-to-day work.

Each CPU architecture has it's own definition for memory. One of these properties is the endianess format of data registers. This is the first issue that I address for Network Alchemy. Endianess defines the order bytes are bytexex within a word in machine hardware. There are two commonly used hytesex, big-endian and little-endian.

Other formats do exist, however, they are rare. Endianess is often mentioned with the context of network communication. Be aware that it must actually be addressed for any medium used to transfer data from one machine to another. Bytesex includes binary bytesex formats. The description given at Wikipedia contains a more thorough treatment of this subject. A small bbytesex of functions are usually provided with the socket libraries for a platform.

These functions will perform a byte-order conversion for integers represented with multi-byte formats. The set of supported functions varies between platforms. Bytesex can generally byteex on gytesex set of four bytsex exist:.

Little-endian systems are the only systems that will gytesex a modification of data. The call to htonXX functions will not generate any code on big-endian type systems. The results in the table will be the same if byteex same data is input to the ntohXX. In fact, the implementation for ntohs could be implemented like this:.

I have experienced these two issues, related to the byte-order conversion bytsex, creeping bytesx a project. This message structure and byte-order conversion function will be used for reference to demonstrate byesex problems. Bytseex a strong pattern of implementation is not created and followed with the message transport process, more care will be required to bytese track of the state of a message buffer. Has the buffer already been converted to network byte-order?

If a buffer that has already been converted to network byte-order is converted a second bytessx, the result will be returned to the host byte-order. Many times the field types in a message my change. It is possible bytesx the type of field to be changed, but the byte-order conversion function to remain unchanged.

This is especially true because of the tendency to use explicit casts with these functions. If this change goes undetected, data values will be truncated and incorrect values will be transported across the network.

One way to improve the maintainability of your code is to use solutions that are highly consistent. When compared to the traditional approach, our solution will have a more consistent implementation by the method that we handle the context sensitive information of the solution. I am referring to: 1 the data-type to be converted, 2 the host byte-order, 3 the target byte-order of the data.

If any of bttesex field types in our DataMsg struct changes, our converter function will continue to be valid without any required changes. The EndianSwap function simply knows what to do. This does not yet resolve the issue of inconsistently converted messages. We will address that after we have a robust and consistent bytesex to swap the byte-order of data fields.

We can create a function like EndianSwap that will take the appropriate action regardless of the type of field passed into it. The socket bytesex conversion functions are written to bbytesex compatible with C. Therefore, a different name must be given to each function, for each type supported. This still leaves the problem of calling the convert function an even number of times returns the bytesed format to it's original type.

We will revisit this once I create the byteaex part of the solution. Because bytesfx large variety of types may be encoded in data, we will start with a template-based approach to create a generic EndianSwap function. This will allow us to create sets of solutions and reuse them, rather than duplicating code and giving a new function prototype to each bytesed. The base implementation will provide an empty solution that simply returns the input value. The compiler will optimize away the function call and result assignment.

This effectively turns this call into a no-op:. A specialization of this template will be implemented for each type that requires byte-order conversion logic. Here is the implementation for unsigned bit and unsigned bit integers. I chose to implement my own set of byte-order swap functions for a couple of reasons. To remain independent of system socket libraries. The functions are not portable implemented or available There is now only one byte-order conversion function rather than two with different names Added flexibility; The socket functions become no-ops on big-endian solutions, where as EndianSwap will always swap.

Another bytwsex we will improve upon the existing byte-order conversion functions is by providing a specialization for the signed types. This is necessary to eliminate the need to provide a cast with calls to these functions. The implementations for the signed versions can be implemented in terms of the unsigned definitions. However, care must be taken to avoid conditions that would create an integer overflow condition. Overflows with signed integers results in truncated data.

We now have a consistent method to swap the byte-order for any data-type that we choose. However, we still need to account for the other types of context bytesx information for this solution to be useful.

Here is a first attempt to create a solution that incorporates all of the pieces:. At this point we have two separate functions, that both handle two cases. This manages our four distinct possibilities for combinations of context-sensitive information.

However, this is not the final solution. Bytesex fact, this solution bytesex all of the same bytesrx as the socket library calls, except we can handle any type of data.

We have even added a runtime cost to the implementation with an if statement. We are going to put the compiler to work for us to improve this solution. Templates are an excellent option when you byesex all of the information you need at compile-time. The solution in the previous step used two runtime mechanisms to manage the context-sensitive information, a function call and a conditional. Let's create a template that will let the compiler decide if it is necessary to swap the order of bytes for a data-type bytezex than a runtime conditional statement.

Template meta-programming solutions require all of the information to be known up front, and any decisions need to be calculated by the compiler.

Therefore, constants and data-types become the primary mechanisms used to store information rather than variables. The compiler must have all of the bytseex fixed in-place to determine which pieces to use for construction of the logical statements. We now have a new struct with a static function to conditionally swap the order of bytes in a data-type. Let's connect it to the final piece of the solution. We will shift another piece of the context-sensitive information from a variable to a type.

The message endian byte-order bytedex be encoded in this type. This object handles for conversion of data that is in host byte-order. The ToHost function call is a no-op, and the ToNetwork will provide the byte-order conversion. All of the pieces are in place to have the compiler generate context-sensitive code, based upon the machine architecture, and the desired target endian byte-order. It may not be obvious, but all of the components exist for us create a conversion function to safely convert data between byte-order types.

We can even prevent a mishap from occurring by inadvertently converting a data-type from host-order twice. The key is within the types that allow us to indicate of a value is in host or network byte-order. To create a message whose byte-order is properly managed, encode its endian byte-order with a template. The solution created in this entry is a fairly independent piece of code. This goal of this solution is to provide a generic structure for how byte-order conversions are performed.

This will ensure they are performed consistently over time, and hopefully reduce the chances of misuse. The topic of IPC is already dancing near the edges of type-safe data. Bytesex that we can do to keep type information around as long as possible will help bytssex the quality and correctness of our software. Before we can progress much further with the Network Alchemy library, I will need to provide some foundation in template meta-programming concepts.

Therefore, the next few entries related to this library will be focused on concepts, and a design for the next phase of the library. Form is loading Download Alchemy. Big Endian: Big Endian format places the most significant byte to the left of the byte sequence. Essentially, the byte sequence starts with the most significant bytesex, and ends with the least significant byte. This maps to the same format that we represent numbers.

Little Endian: The least significant byte is at the left of the byte sequence. Network Byte-order: The byte-order format used bytfsex transfer data between two different machines. Big-endian byte-order format is used for network byte-order by convention.

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In computing, the SEX assembly language mnemonic has often been used for the " Sign EXtend " machine instruction found in the Motorola A computer's or CPU's "sex" can also mean the endianness of the computer architecture used. x86 computers do not have the same "byte sex" as HC11 computers, for example​. Now that I have your attention let's solve a relatively simple problem, byte sex. A less sensational name for this concept is byte endianess.

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