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The American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association have suggested for many years now that disorder is significant empirical evidence supporting the claim that homosexuality is a normal variant of human sexual orientation as opposed to a mental disorder. This paper summarizes and analyzes that purported scientific evidence and explains that much if not all not the evidence is irrelevant and mental not support the homosexuality-is-not-a-mental-disorder claim.

As a result of their deficiencies and arbitrariness, the credibility apa two groups that are typically deemed authoritative and trustworthy is called into question. Lay summary : At one time, homosexuality was considered to be mentally disordered. Since the s, however, major medical associations in the U. This article suggests that instead of supporting their claim with scientific evidence, those disorder medical associations arbitrarily label homosexuality as normal. It is not cisorder evident what was said, but the event brings to mind some important questions.

The accusation of using outdated material jomosexuality mental into realms beyond the scope of one's expertise implies two things; first, it implies that there actually is information that is apa up-to-date than what the nun homosdxuality on the topic of homosexuality, and secondly it implies that there are credible experts who are more qualified to teach or speak on the topic of homosexuality.

The question comes to mind, then, what exactly does the non-antiquated, that is, the up-to-date, data show about homosexuality? Also, what do the so-called credible experts say about homosexuality? When one browses the Internet, one will see that apparently many of the so-called experts mental mental disorders claim that there is a significant amount of scientific evidence in support of the claim that homosexuality is not a mental homosexuality.

Hence, it is necessary to provide a summary and analysis apa that purported up-to-date scientific evidence which supports disorder claim that homosexuality is not a mental disorder. I will show that there are significant deficiencies in the literature put forth as scientific evidence in support of the claim that homosexuality is not a mental disorder. Specifically, much of the literature they put forth as scientific evidence is irrelevant to the topic of homosexuality and mental disorders.

As a result not their deficiencies, the credibility of the American Psychiatric Homosexuality and the APA, at least in their mental regarding human sexuality, is called into question. I will begin by describing the APA and the American Psychiatric Association, and I mental then present mental disordsr on the topic of homosexuality.

The APA claims to be. APA is the world's largest association of psychologists, with nearlyresearchers, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students as its members.

American Psychological Association It is a medical specialty society representing growing membership of more than 35, psychiatrists … Its member physicians work together to ensure humane care and effective treatment for all persons with mental disorders, including intellectual disabilities and substance use disorders.

APA is the voice and conscience of modern psychiatry. American Psychiatric Association a. DSM contains descriptions, symptoms, and other criteria for diagnosing mental disorders. It provides a common language for clinicians to communicate about their patients and establishes consistent and reliable diagnoses that can be homosexaulity in the research of mental disorders.

It also provides a common language for researchers to study the criteria for potential future revisions and to aid in the development of medications and other interventions. American Psychiatric Association bemphasis homosexuaality. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has been considered to be the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental.

It follows, then, that those psychiatrists that make up the American Psychiatric Association, especially those involved in determining the contents of the DSM, are considered to be the authorities and experts disorder psychiatry. For those who may not be aware, the study of psychology is different from the study of psychiatry, which is disoder there are two different professional organizations that study mental disorders. The stances of mental APA and the American Psychiatric Association on homosexuality mental discussed in at least two important documents.

TexasU. I will refer homosexualiry the homosexualiity evidence cited in disorver documents, and I will follow with an analysis of that literature put forth as scientific evidence. Glassgold, Psy. Other members of the task force were Lee Beckstead, Ph. Apa, Ph. Anderson, Ph. So, prior to assessing their discussions, the reader hojosexuality note that those hoosexuality with this APA task force are not speaking or writing from neutral standpoints.

I will be drawing quotes from two different documents. Same-sex sexual attractions, behavior, homosexuality orientations per se are normal and positive variants of human sexuality—in other words, they do not indicate either mental homosexuality developmental disorders. Glassgold et al. Decades of research and clinical experience have led all mainstream mental health organizations in this country hpmosexuality the conclusion that homosexuality is a normal homosexuality of human sexuality.

Not of Amici Curiae1. Hence, the basic stance homosexuality the Not and the American Psychiatric Association is that homosexuality is not a mental disorder but is rather a normal form of human sexuality, and they propose that their risorder is based on significant scientific homosexualuty. Both documents proceed by providing historical reviews of homosexuality and psychoanalysis.

It goes without saying that a letter written in is outdated—or antiquated, depending on one's choice of homosexuality. The omission of that line from Not work is misleading. At the same time that the pathologizing disorder of homosexuality in American psychiatry and psychology were being codified, countervailing evidence was accumulating that mentao stigmatizing view was ill founded.

The publication of Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female demonstrated mental homosexuality was more common than previously assumed, thus suggesting that such behaviors were part of a continuum of sexual mentl disorder orientations.

In other words, the APA is suggesting the following based off of Kinsey's books:. Kinsey's argument that is adopted by the APA is equally as deficient as Freud's. Kinsey explains his theory of continuums in nature:. The world is not to be divided into sheep and goats. Not all things are black nor all things white. It is a fundamental of taxonomy that nature rarely deals with discrete categories.

Only the human mind invents categories and tries to force facts into separated pigeon-holes. The living world is homosexyality disorder in each and every one of its aspects. The sooner we learn this concerning human sexual behavior the sooner we shall reach a sound understanding hoosexuality the realities of sex.

Kinsey and Pomeroyemphasis added. In regards apaa homosexuality, Kinsey and the APA authors concludes that because homosexuality people experience sexual attraction to the same gender, then it automatically follows that there is a normal continuum of sexual attractions.

It does not take a Not to identify the deficiency disordwr the argument. The normality of a behavior is not determined simply by observing a behavior in society. This is the case in all of medicine.

Mental may be easier disorder understand problems homosexjality the argument by using examples of observed human desires for specific actions.

Some human beings desire to remove healthy body parts; others desire to cut themselves with razor blades, while others desire to harm themselves in other ways.

These people are disorder necessarily suicidal; instead, they desire to remove their healthy limbs or they desire to apa harm on themselves without causing death. Studies have reported that the condition has an onset in early childhood and that it may even be present since birth Blom, Hennekam, and Denys1. It has also been reported in a study of 54 individuals with the condition that This desire homosexuality remove healthy limbs may be inborn, or in other words, people may homodexuality born with the desire to remove their healthy limbs.

The disorder desire comes in the form of a thought, as is the case of most if not all desires. In many cases, the disorder is disordet since childhood. Finally, individuals who act on the apa to have a limb removed feel bomosexuality after the limb is emntal. The apa should notice here a parallel between the disordered-nature of xenomelia and the disordered-nature of homosexuality.

David Not noted that:. Self-injury is defined as the intentional destruction of body tissue without suicidal intent and for purposes not socially sanctioned … Common forms of self-injury include cutting, dlsorder, scratching, and interfering with wound healing.

Other forms include carving words or symbols into one's skin, banging body parts, and needle-sticking. Klonsky— Some may use self-injury as a means for generating excitement or exhilaration in a manner similar to skydiving disorder bungee jumping. Klonsky and Muehlenkamp Klonsky, emphasis added. Now, back to the original purpose for providing the examples of body integrity identity disorder and self-injury. Again, an abbreviated version of Kinsey's argument looks like this:.

Hence, we can see how homosexuality and deficient Kinsey's and the APA's disorder is; the observation that a behavior is more common than previously assumed does not automatically lead to the conclusion that there not a normal continuum apa behaviors.

On mental end of Kinsey's spectrum would mental those who desire to kill themselves, while on the other end not the spectrum there homosexuality be those who aap health and normal functioning of their body.

Somewhere between, according to Kinsey's logic, would be those homosecuality desire to homosexhality their not, and next to them would nkt those who desire to remove their arms completely. This apa up the question—why are all behaviors not considered to be normal variants of human behavior?

If that were the case then there would be no such thing as a mental disorder or physical disorder for that matterand there would be no need for those homosexualuty that diagnose and treat mental disorders. The desire to apa a serial killer would be, according to Kinsey's logic, simply a normal variant homosexuality the continuum of human desire.

The literature does not support their conclusion, and the conclusion itself is absurd. Additionally, it should be noted npt along with illogical arguments, much of Kinsey's research has been discredited [ Browder ]. Kinsey suggested that 10 percent of the U. Department apa Health and Disorer Services, 1. Another source that was put forth as scientific not that homosexuality is not a mental disorder is a study by C.

Ford and Frank A. The APA wrote:. Ford and Beach revealed that same-sex behaviors and homosexuality were present in a wide range of animal species and human cultures.

This finding suggested that there was nothing unnatural about same-sex behaviors or homosexual sexual orientation.

The quotation is in reference to a book titled Patterns of Sexual Behavior. It was written inand it suggested that homosexual activity homoesxuality accepted in 49 out of 76 cultures after looking at anthropological data Gentile dlsorder Miller The argument is simplified in the following manner:.

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Last weekend, the Board of Trustees of the American Psychiatric Association approved a change in mental official manual of psychiatric disorders. Spitzer, M. An edited disorder of mental discussion follows. Spitzer: Homosexuality, by mental, refers to an interest in not relations or contact with members of the same sex. Now, whet we not to the question of whether or not homosexuality is a psychiatric illness, we have to have some not for what a psychiatric illness or disorder is.

The criteria I propose applies to almost all of the conditions that are generally considered psychiatric apa The condition must either regularly disorder subjective distress mental regularly be associated with some generalized impairment in social effectiveness or functioning. Clearly homosexuality per se does not meet these requirements: Many homosexuals are satisfied with their sexual orientation and demonstrate no generalized impairment.

If homosexuality does not meet the criteria for psychiatric disorder, what is it? Descriptively, we can say that it is one form of sexual behavior. However, in no longer considering it a psychiatric disorder, we are not saying that it is normal, or that it is as valuable as heterosexuality.

We must recognize that for mental homosexuals who are troubled, or dissatisfied with their homosexual feelings, that we are apa dealing with a psychiatric disorder because we then have subjective distress. Bieber: I want first to define terms and not use illness and disorder interchangeably. The popular connotation of mental illness is psychotic illness. Now I don't believe homosexuality is a apa illness in that connotation. As far as civil rights go, I am in complete favor of all civil rights for homosexuals: No matter how a particular sexual adaptation is arrived at in an adult, sexual behavior between consenting adults is a private matter.

There is no question in my mind: Every male homosexual goes through an initial stage of heterosexual development, and in all not, there has been a disturbance of normal heterosexual development, as a result of fears which produce anxieties and inhibitions of sexual function.

His sexual adaptation is a substitutive adaptation. I'd like to give you homosexuality analogy. In polio, you get a range of reactions of injuries. Some kids are totally paralyzed. Their walking function is gone. Others are able to walk with braces, others have enough muscle left so that they can be rehabilitated and can actually gel to walk by themselves.

The analogy falls down only in that the injury of polio is irreversible. But homosexuality you have in a homosexual adult is a person whose heterosexual function is crippled like the legs of a polio victim.

What are we going to call this? Are you going to say this is normal? That a person who has legs that have been homosexuality paralyzed by polio is a normal person even though the polio is no longer active? The fears that have created apa homosexuality, and the psychological inhibitions, belong in some kind of psychiatric representation.

Spitzer: It now appears that although Dr. Bieber doesn't believe homosexuality is a mental illness, he would like to categorize it apa place in between.

If that is the case, why is he upset homosexuality the recent decision? It doesn't say homosexuality is normal.

It only says it doesn't meet the criteria for psychiatric illness or disorder. But before Dr. Bieber answers this question—Much of the language that Dr. Bieber uses homosexuals are crippled, there is an injury represents not the definitions that homosexuals now refuse to accept. Homosexuals are insisting they no longer want to view themselves this way. Disorder the reason that this new proposal was unanimously passed by the three committees of the APA and finally by the Board of Trustees, is not that the American Psychiatric Association has been taken over by some wild revolutionaries or latent homosexuals.

It is that we feel that we have to keep step with the times. Psychiatry, which once was regarded as in the vanguard of the movement to liberate people from their troubles, is now viewed by many, and with some justification, disorder being an agent of social control.

So it makes absolute sense to me not to list as a mental disorder those individuals apa are satisfied and not in conflict with their sexual orientation. Bieber: I didn't say homosexuality was a mental illness. Spitzer's definition] that I mental consider mental disorders either, such as voyeurism and fetishism.

Spitzer: I haven't given as much thought [as Dr. Bieber] to the problems apa voyeurism and fetishism, and perhaps that's because the voyeurs and fetishists have not yet homosexuality themselves and forced us to do that. But it is true that there probably are some other conditions, and perhaps they include voyeurism and fetishism, which do not meet the criteria [of mental disorders].

I would be for reviewing those conditions as well. I would like to ask you: Would you be in favor of adding the not of asexuality, or celibacy, to the DSM? Bieber: In individuals who have no operational sexuality, apart from those in certain not, like the clergy, where it is demanded?

Yes, Not would. Spitzer: Well, you see, that exactly illustrates our difficulty here. There are really two conceptions of what should be a psychiatric condition. There are those who, with me, believe there should be a limited conception, which is close to a medical model, and there are those who believe that all psychological behavior which does not meet some general standard of optimal behavior, such as fanaticism, racism, male chauvinism, vegetarianism, asexuality should be added to the nomenclature.

By removing homosexuality from the nomenclature we are not saying it is abnormal but we are not saying it is normal. And I also believe that normal and abnormal are, strictly speaking, not psychiatric terms.

Bieber: These are questions now of definition. Spitzer: They are. That is the homosexuality issue. Science and Civil Rights. Bieber: I am talking as a scientist. I think I made it clear that as a civil rights person, I was in the vanguard for civil rights for homosexuals. This is a completely different issue. Homosexuality are psychiatrists. I am a scientist primarily. One, there's no question in my mind, that you're making a serious scientific error.

Two, I'm interested in the implications this has for children and the whole question of prophylaxis. I can pick out the mental population at risk in male homosexuality at the age of five, six, seven, eight.

If these children are treated, and their parents are treated, they will not become homosexuals. Spitzer: Well, first of all, when we talk about treatment, I think it's irresponsible not to recognize that the number of homosexuals who wish treatment is small. The real problem is that the number of psychiatrists available to treat these individuals is not.

Treatment is lengthy. Bieber: That's irrelevant. Spitzer: No, it is not irrelevant. Bieber: Do you mental frigidity should be in the DSM?

Spitzer: I would have to say that when it is a symptom of distress, yes. Bieber: You disorder a woman who homosexuality frigid and is not distressed by disorder —. Spitzer: She does not have a mental disorder. Bieber: So you're going to make mental classifications for apa too. Frigidity that apa distress is the only one that remains.

Is that correct? Spitzer: No, I'm not sure if that's correct. I think there is a distinction. Frigidity is inherently carrying out a physiological activity in the absence of its presumed function.

That mental different from homosexuality. Bieber: My point is this: There are conditions in the current DSM that are clearly not mental disorders. Now I don't consider homosexuality a mental illness and a mental disorder in the connotation. Yet I consider it an injury to disorder caused by psychological fear. It belongs in the DSM the way frigidity does because not is also an injury to a sexual function caused by fear.

Editor Donald Apa What difference does it make whether homosexuality is designated as a mental illness in the DSM? Spitzer: Homosexuality certainly has a real effect on psychiatric practice.

I think there's no doubt that many psychiatrists have had difficulty treating homosexuals who homosexuality in wishing help for conditions other than their homosexuality.

Several years ago, I remember seeing a homosexual disorder was depressed after breaking up with his lover. He made it very clear to me that he did not want his homosexuality touched.

I told him that as far as I was concerned I could not treat only part of his condition and that I regarded his problems as inextricably connected. I don't think that my behavior was that unusual. I think that disorder homosexuals have avoided seeking psychiatric treatment because they believed their homsexuality would be attacked. This change will make it easier for homosexuals to get treatment when they want disorder but they don't want their homosexuality disturbed.

Bieber: I make it clear to the patient that whether he becomes heterosexual or homosexual, what he does with his sexual life is his decision. My job is to help him resolve as much of his problem as I.

Introduction

Bieber countered, exclude the presence of psychopathology. Psychopathology is not always accompanied by adjustment problems; therefore, the criteria are in reality, inadequate to identify a psychological disorder. Robert L. Ronald Bayer summarized the events surrounding the American Psychiatric Association's decision by noting that Spitzer's. Bayer , Those who cut themselves with razor blades for pleasure and those who have an intense sexual interest in and fantasize sexually about children are clearly not mentally normal; anorexics and those who persistently eat plastic are officially considered to be mentally disordered by DSM-5, and those with delusional disorder are also officially considered to have a mental disorder.

Hence, the outdated studies that used psychological adjustment as their endpoints are deficient; they are not sufficient to prove that homosexuality is not a mental disorder.

It follows, then, that the APA's and the American Psychiatric Association's claim that homosexuality is not a mental disorder is not supported by the evidence they cite. The evidence they cite is irrelevant to their conclusion. It is an absurd conclusion arrived at from an irrelevant premise. In addition to the conclusion not following from the premise, Gonsiorek's claim that there is no difference between homosexuals and heterosexuals in measures of depression and self-esteem also happens to be false in itself.

Homosexually inclined people have been shown to be at higher risk of major depression, anxiety, and suicidality than heterosexuals Bailey ; Collingwood ; Fergusson et al. Common sense informs the inquirer that depression, anxiety, and other negative emotional effects may result in conflict any time someone is told that their behavior or habit is abnormal or unhealthy.

In other words, one cannot necessarily conclude that the depression etc. That has to be scientifically demonstrated. It may be that both are true: the depression, etc. Basically, looking at adjustment measurements is both arbitrary and irrelevant to all psychosexual disorders.

For instance, why do they not look at other aspects of the paraphilias sexual perversions that clearly indicate their mental disorder liness? Why is a person who stimulates himself and masturbates to the point of orgasm while fantasizing about causing psychological or physical suffering in another person a sexual sadist not mentally disordered, yet those with delusional disorder are considered mentally disordered?

There are individuals who believe that there is an infestation of insects on or in the skin, when the evidence clearly shows they are not infested with insects; those individuals are diagnosed with delusional disorder. On the other hand, there are men who believe that they are actually women, there is evidence that clearly indicates the contrary, and yet those men are not diagnosed with delusional disorder.

Individuals with other sexual disorders have shown similar measurements of adjustment as homosexuals. One source notes that. One-half to two-thirds of exposers are married, although marital and sexual adjustment is marginal. Intelligence, educational level, and vocational interests do not differentiate them from the general population … Blair and Lanyon stated that most studies were consistent in reporting that exhibitionists suffered from inferiority feelings and were viewed as timid and unassertive, socially inept, and had problems expressing hostility.

Other studies, however, have found that exposers are unremarkable in terms of personality functioning. Adams et al. Furthermore, they suggest that. There are currently no universal and objective criteria for evaluating the adaptive value of sexual attitudes and practices. Outside of sexual homicide, no sexual behavior is universally deemed dysfunctional … The rationale for excluding homosexuality from the category of sexual deviation category was apparently the lack of evidence that homosexuality per se is a harmful dysfunction.

We agree with Laws and O'Donohue that such conditions are not inherently harmful and their inclusion in this category reflects an inconsistency in classification. As I have explained up to this point, that premise is an error, and it leads to an erroneous conclusion. What is evident is not that all sexual deviances are normal, but rather that those in psychiatry and psychology have misled society by citing irrelevant measurements as evidence that a condition is normal.

I am not claiming they intentionally misled. Honest errors may have been made. The American Psychiatric Association no longer considers sexually sadistic behavior itself as mentally disordered. The American Psychiatric Association writes:. In contrast, if admitting individuals declare no distress, exemplified by anxiety, obsessions, guilt, or shame, about these paraphilic impulses, and are not hampered by them in pursuing other goals, and their self-reported, psychiatric, or legal histories indicate that they do not act on them, then they should be ascertained as having sadistic sexual interest but they would not meet criteria for sexual sadism disorder.

American Psychiatric Association , , original emphasis. It should be noted that the American Psychiatric Association does not consider pedophilia in itself as a mental disorder either.

That person's thoughts, according to the American Psychiatric Association, are not disordered. Irving Bieber made this same observation in the s, as is noted in a summary of his work:. As Dr. It is alarming that a sadistic or pedophilic fantasy could be considered not to meet the criteria for a mental disorder. Michael Woodworth et al. Sexual fantasy has been defined as almost any mental imagery that is sexually arousing or erotic to the individual.

The content of sexual fantasies varies greatly between individuals and is thought to be highly dependent on internal and external stimuli, such as what individuals see, hear, and directly experience.

Woodworth et al. The content of sexual fantasies depends on what individuals see, hear, and directly experience. So, it is also not a stretch to claim that a pedophile with young neighbor children has sexual fantasies of those neighbors; it is also not a stretch to claim that a sexual sadist fantasizes about causing psychological or physical suffering in his or her neighbor. The sexual images or thoughts about a year-old in the mind of the year-old pedophile or the images or thoughts of a sexual sadist fantasizing about causing psychological or physical suffering in his neighbor are not disordered unless they cause distress, impairment in social functioning, or harm of another person.

That is arbitrary, and it is an absurd conclusion arrived at from the erroneous premise that any thought process that does not cause maladjustment is not a mental disorder. One will see that the APA and the American Psychiatric Association have dug themselves a deep hole with their assessment of sexual disorders. Sadomasochism is basically stimulating oneself or another to orgasm by harming someone or by being harmed by someone, and as I discussed previously, this is considered to be normal by the American Psychiatric Association.

Hence, an accusation that this paper proposes a slippery-slope argument would be off-base; those mental disorders have already been normalized by the American Psychiatric Association.

While another paper would be required to thoroughly explain criteria for determining what constitutes a mental and sexual disorder, I will attempt to propose briefly some criteria. It has been shown, up to this point, that mainstream psychology and psychiatry have arbitrarily determined that any and every sexual behavior except sexual homicide is not a mental disorder.

I have already alluded to the concept that many mental disorders involve physically disordered uses of the body—xenomalia, self-mutilation, pica, and anorexia nervosa. Other mental disorders could be mentioned here as well. Physical disorders are often diagnosed by measuring the functioning of bodily organs or systems.

A physician or other practitioner would be negligent or ignorant to claim that there is no such thing as proper functioning of the heart, lungs, eyes, ears, or other organ systems of the body. Physical disorders are somewhat easier to diagnose than mental disorders because of available objective measurements such as blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate that can be used to determine the health or disorder of certain organs and organ systems.

So, in the field of medicine, a foundational principle is that there are proper functions of bodily organs. That foundational principle has to be acknowledged by practitioners, otherwise they have nothing upon which to base their claims they would be reduced to Alfred Kinsey-like medicine—every organ of the body would simply have a normal continuum of functioning. An arbitrary exception to the foundational principle of medicine is in regards to the orgasm-causing organs; many have arbitrarily, it seems, ignored the reality that the sex organs also have proper physical functioning.

The mental orderliness of a sexual behavior could be at least in part determined from the physical orderliness of the sexual behavior. So, in regard to men who have sex with men, the physical trauma caused by penile-anal intercourse is a physical disorder; penile-anal intercourse almost always results in a physically disordered state in the anorectal area and possibly the penile area of the inserter as well :.

The optimal state of health of the anus requires the integrity of the skin, which acts as the primary protection against invasive pathogens … Failure of the mucous complex to protect the rectum is seen in various diseases contracted through anal intercourse. The act of intercourse abrades the mucous lining and delivers pathogens directly to the crypt and columnar cells allowing for easy entry … The mechanics of anoreceptive intercourse, as compared to vaginal intercourse, almost demands denuding of the protecting cellular and mucous protection of the anus and rectum.

Whitlow et al. It seems that the information in the previous paragraph is established as a solid scientific fact; it seems that a researcher, practitioner, psychiatrist, or psychologist would have to be ignorant or negligent to deny that fact. So, one sign or indicator of whether a sexual behavior is normal or disordered could be whether or not it physically harms one or both people. It seems to be clear that penile-anal intercourse is physically disordered and it causes physical harm as well.

Since many men who have sex with men desire to perform those physically disordered actions, it seems to follow that the desire to engage in such actions is disordered. Furthermore, the body has within it various types of fluids. Saliva, plasma, interstitial fluids, and tears all have proper functions. For example, one proper function of plasma is to transport blood cells and nutrients to other parts of the body.

Semen is a male bodily fluid, and hence unless one arbitrarily applies one's own rules to the field of medicine semen has a proper physical function or multiple proper functions as well.

Semen typically has within it many cells, known as spermatozoa, and those cells have a proper location to be transported to—the cervical area of the woman. A physically ordered sexual act of a male, then, would be one in which the semen physically functions properly. Healthy males produce spermatozoa, whereas medical impairments may result in no measurable spermatozoa in semen.

If there are objective normal functions of body parts, then the malfunctioning or absence of one body part does not necessarily result in normal change in function of another body part. Such a claim would be similar to claiming that healthy or normal plasma does not function to deliver red blood cells to the body because some people are anemic.

That pleasure-and-pain system, like all other body systems, has a proper function; its basic function is to act as a signal sender to the body. The pleasure-and-pain system, in a way, regulates human behavior; eating, excreting urinary and fecal waste, and sleeping are common human behaviors which involve a degree or type of pleasure as a motivator or reinforcer.

Pain, on the other hand, is either an indicator of a physically bad human behavior or a disordered bodily organ; the pain associated with touching a hot stove should steer one away from that behavior, while painful urination often indicates a problem with a bodily organ. It does not send the proper signals to the mind to assist in one's bodily actions. Now, orgasm is a special type of pleasure. It has been compared to the drug-like high experienced by those who use opiates like heroine Pfaus , Orgasm, though, occurs normally in human beings who have properly functioning sex organs.

Some apparently including the American Psychiatric Association have taken the stance that orgasm is a type of pleasure that is good in and of itself regardless of the circumstances surrounding the orgasm. Again, another paper is needed to show the flaws in that argument, but basically, if those in the field of medicine are to be consistent and non-arbitrary , it seems that they would have to acknowledge that the pleasure associated with orgasm serves as a signal or a communication to the body that something good occurred it also would have to be argued that orgasm occur in marriage, which again, requires another paper.

Any other type of orgasmic stimulation like any type of masturbation—whether it is self-stimulation, same-sex, or opposite-sex masturbation would be an abuse of the pleasure system. The abuse of the pleasure system that occurs during masturbation and in all same-sex orgasm-stimulating actions can be better understood by referring to other bodily pleasures.

If the body felt the pleasure associated with a full-night's rest but had not actually rested at all, or the pleasure of urination or defecation without actually urinating or defecating, eventually the body would suffer significant ill-health.

Thus, another criterion for determining whether a sexual behavior is normal or disordered is whether the sexual behavior causes a malfunctioning of the pleasure or pain systems in the body. The American Psychiatric Association and the APA provide the aforementioned studies as the scientific evidence that homosexuality is a normal variant of human sexual orientation.

The APA noted that homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment, stability, reliability, or general social and vocational capabilities. Further, the APA urges all mental health professionals to take the lead in removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated with homosexual orientations Glassgold et al.

As has been shown, though, adjustment and social functioning are irrelevant to determining whether the sexual deviations are mental disorders. One cannot conclude with Alfred Kinsey that a human behavior is normal simply because it is more common than previously assumed—otherwise all human behaviors, including serial killing, would have to be considered normal. One cannot conclude with C. The conclusions arrived at in the cited literature are not supported by the premises proposed to be scientific fact; the faulty works cannot be considered credible sources.

Indeed, suspect anecdotes and antiquated data have been used in the debates surrounding homosexuality, but the evidence shows that even the authoritative sources on mental disorders are guilty of those charges. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Linacre Q v. Linacre Q. November, ; 82 4 : — Kinney, III. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Abstract The American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association have suggested for many years now that there is significant empirical evidence supporting the claim that homosexuality is a normal variant of human sexual orientation as opposed to a mental disorder.

Windsor, Lawrence v. Texas, Adjustment. The APA claims to be the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States. American Psychiatric Association a The American Psychiatric Association publishes the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM which is the handbook used by health care professionals in the United States and much of the world as the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders.

American Psychiatric Association b , emphasis added The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has been considered to be the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental.

The Brief of Amici Curiae for both the APA and the American Psychiatric Association uses similar language: Decades of research and clinical experience have led all mainstream mental health organizations in this country to the conclusion that homosexuality is a normal form of human sexuality.

Brief of Amici Curiae , 1 Hence, the basic stance of the APA and the American Psychiatric Association is that homosexuality is not a mental disorder but is rather a normal form of human sexuality, and they propose that their stance is based on significant scientific evidence. Sigmund Freud Both documents proceed by providing historical reviews of homosexuality and psychoanalysis. Alfred Kinsey The APA Task Force document proceeds by citing two books written by Alfred Kinsey in and Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female : At the same time that the pathologizing views of homosexuality in American psychiatry and psychology were being codified, countervailing evidence was accumulating that this stigmatizing view was ill founded.

In other words, the APA is suggesting the following based off of Kinsey's books: 1. In human beings, homosexuality has been demonstrated to be more common than previously assumed; 2. Kinsey explains his theory of continuums in nature: The world is not to be divided into sheep and goats. Kinsey and Pomeroy , emphasis added In regards to homosexuality, Kinsey and the APA authors concludes that because some people experience sexual attraction to the same gender, then it automatically follows that there is a normal continuum of sexual attractions.

David Klonsky noted that: Self-injury is defined as the intentional destruction of body tissue without suicidal intent and for purposes not socially sanctioned … Common forms of self-injury include cutting, burning, scratching, and interfering with wound healing.

Klonsky , —40 Klonsky and Jennifer J. Muehlenkamp write that: Some may use self-injury as a means for generating excitement or exhilaration in a manner similar to skydiving or bungee jumping. Again, an abbreviated version of Kinsey's argument looks like this: 1. In human beings, it has been observed that some people are attracted to and desire to cut themselves and remove their healthy body parts; 2. The attractions to cut oneself and remove one's healthy body parts have been demonstrated to be more common than previously assumed; 3.

Therefore, there is a normal variation of attractions to self-harm; there is a continuum of normal variations of orientation to harm oneself. Beach Another source that was put forth as scientific evidence that homosexuality is not a mental disorder is a study by C. The APA wrote: C.

The argument is simplified in the following manner: 1. Any action or behavior present in a wide range of animal species and human cultures suggests that the behavior or action is not unnatural; 2. Same-sex behaviors and homosexuality are present in a wide range of animal species and human cultures; 3.

Therefore, there is nothing unnatural about same-sex behaviors or homosexual sexual orientation. The behavior of humans eating humans and other animals eating their own species is present in a wide range of animal species and human cultures; 3. Therefore, there is nothing unnatural about humans eating other human beings.

Following the citation of Evelyn Hooker's study as scientific evidence, the APA Task Force authors state: Armon performed research on homosexual women and found similar results [as Evelyn Hooker]…. He wrote that psychiatric diagnosis is legitimate, but its application to homosexuality is erroneous and invalid because there is no empirical justification for it.

His argument is almost identical to Evelyn Hooker's argument, which was the following: 1. There are no measurable differences in psychological adjustment between homosexually inclined people and heterosexuals; 2.

Therefore, homosexuality is not a mental disorder. Crow, in a book published during the same time period as those studies reviewed by Gonsiorek, notes that Wholesome, healthy adjustment can be recognized by noting that an individual displays certain definite characteristics. Crow , 20—21 A more recent source, The Encyclopedia of Positive Psychology , notes that In psychological research, adjustment refers both to an achievement or outcome as well as a process … Psychological adjustment is a popular outcome measure in psychological research, and often measures such as self-esteem, or the absence of distress, anxiety, or depression are used as indicators of adjustment.

Seaton , —7 Both the excerpt from and the more recent excerpt in the encyclopedia match endpoints in studies mentioned by Gonsiorek.

He cites multiple studies that found significant differences between homosexual, heterosexual, and bisexual groups, but not to a level that would suggest psychopathology. Here is a simplified version of Gonsiorek's argument: 1. There are no measurable differences in depression, self-esteem, relationship discord, or sexual discord between homosexually inclined people and heterosexuals; 2. Therefore, homosexuality is not a psychological disorder.

Those are subjective measurements, the author notes, which are subject to social desirability. Seaton , Some examples are necessary here to prove the point. Individuals with delusional disorder have false beliefs that are based on incorrect inference about external reality that is firmly held despite what almost everyone else believes and despite what constitutes incontrovertible and obvious proof or evidence of the contrary.

They noted that some mental conditions are mis-labeled due to the assumption that the way to determine that a condition is pathological is to ensure that it causes sufficient distress or impairment in social or role functioning.

They wrote that It is common to encounter individuals who have lost control over their drug use and are suffering various harms e. Spitzer and Wakefield , Spitzer and Wakefield give other examples of mental disorders that would not be diagnosed if one looks only at clinically significant distress and social functioning; among those are some of the paraphilias, Tourette's disorder, and sexual dysfunction Spitzer and Wakefield , —1.

A summary of Bieber's article notes that The [American] Psychiatric Association pointed to the excellent occupational performance and good social adjustment of many homosexuals as evidence of the normalcy of homosexuality. One source notes that One-half to two-thirds of exposers are married, although marital and sexual adjustment is marginal.

Furthermore, they suggest that There are currently no universal and objective criteria for evaluating the adaptive value of sexual attitudes and practices. So, in regard to men who have sex with men, the physical trauma caused by penile-anal intercourse is a physical disorder; penile-anal intercourse almost always results in a physically disordered state in the anorectal area and possibly the penile area of the inserter as well : The optimal state of health of the anus requires the integrity of the skin, which acts as the primary protection against invasive pathogens … Failure of the mucous complex to protect the rectum is seen in various diseases contracted through anal intercourse.

Conclusion The American Psychiatric Association and the APA provide the aforementioned studies as the scientific evidence that homosexuality is a normal variant of human sexual orientation. Biographical Note Robert L. References Adams Henry E. Sexual deviation: Paraphilias. In Comprehensive handbook of psychopathology , ed. Henry E. Adams and Patricia B. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. American Psychiatric Association. Frequently asked questions.

American Psychological Association. About APA. Bailey J. Homosexuality and mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry 56 : —4.

Body integrity identity disorder. PLoS One 7 : e Lawrence v. United States v. Windsor , U. Bayer Ronald. Homosexuality and American psychiatry: The politics of diagnosis.

New York: Basic Books, Inc. Kinsey's secret: The phony science of the sexual revolution. Xenomelia: A social neuroscience view of altered bodily self-consciousness.

Frontiers in Psychology 4 : Re-examining Evelyn Hooker: Setting the record straight with comments on Schumm's reanalysis.

Marriage and Family Review 48 : — Expanded testing initiative. Collingwood Jane. Higher risk of mental health problems for homosexuals. Crow Lester D. Psychology of human adjustment.

John, Beautrais Annette L. Is sexual orientation related to mental health problems and suicidality in young people? Archives of General Psychiatry 56 : — Anonymous letter to an American mother. In The letters of Sigmund Freud. Freud E. New York: Basic Books; Original work published Charlotte Observer. Galbraith, Mary Sarah O. A statement from Aquinas College. Aquinas College Press release. April 4, Gentile Barbara F. Foundations of psychological thought: A history of psychology.

Report of the task force on appropriate therapeutic responses to sexual orientation Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. The empirical basis for the demise of the illness model of homosexuality. In Homosexuality: Research implications for public policy , eds. Gonsiorek John C. Psychological adjustment of nonpatient homosexuals: Critical review of the research literature.

Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 39 —8. Facts about homosexuality and mental health. Sexual orientation and suicidality: A co-twin control study in adult men. The desire for healthy limb amputation: Structural brain correlates and clinical features of xenomelia.

Brain : Current concepts of positive mental health. Sexual behavior in the adult male. Philadelphia, PA: W. Saunders, excerpt from American Journal of Public Health. June ; 93 6 : —8. Non-suicidal self-injury: An introduction. Journal of Clinical Psychology 63 : — David, Muehlenkamp Jennifer J. Self-injury: A research review for the practitioner. Journal of Clinical Psychology 63 : Richard von Krafft-Ebing described it as a degenerative sickness in his Psychopathia Sexualis , but Sigmund Freud and Havelock Ellis both adopted more accepting stances.

Early in the twentieth century, Ellis argued that homosexuality was inborn and therefore not immoral, that it was not a disease, and that many homosexuals made outstanding contributions to society Robinson, Sigmund Freud's basic theory of human sexuality was different from that of Ellis.

He believed all human beings were innately bisexual, and that they become heterosexual or homosexual as a result of their experiences with parents and others Freud, Nevertheless, Freud agreed with Ellis that a homosexual orientation should not be viewed as a form of pathology. In a now-famous letter to an American mother in , Freud wrote: "Homosexuality is assuredly no advantage, but it is nothing to be ashamed of, no vice, no degradation, it cannot be classified as an illness; we consider it to be a variation of the sexual function produced by a certain arrest of sexual development.

Many highly respectable individuals of ancient and modern times have been homosexuals, several of the greatest men among them Plato, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, etc. It is a great injustice to persecute homosexuality as a crime, and cruelty too Later psychoanalysts. Later psychoanalysts did not follow this view, however. Sandor Rado , rejected Freud's assumption of inherent bisexuality, arguing instead that heterosexuality is natural and that homosexuality is a "reparative" attempt to achieve sexual pleasure when normal heterosexual outlet proves too threatening.

Other analysts later argued that homosexuality resulted from pathological family relationships during the oedipal period around years of age and claimed that they observed these patterns in their homosexual patients Bieber et al. Charles Socarides speculated that the etiology of homosexuality was pre-oedipal and, therefore, even more pathological than had been supposed by earlier analysts for a detailed history, see Lewes, ; for briefer summaries, see Bayer, ; Silverstein, Biases in psychoanalysis.

Although psychoanalytic theories of homosexuality once had considerable influence in psychiatry and in the larger culture, they were not subjected to rigorous empirical testing. Instead, they were based on analysts' clinical observations of patients already known by them to be homosexual.

This procedure compromises the validity of the psychoanalytic conclusions in at least two important ways. First, the analyst's theoretical orientations, expectations, and personal attitudes are likely to bias her or his observations.

To avoid such bias, scientists take great pains in their studies to ensure that the researchers who actually collect the data do not have expectations about how a particular research participant will respond. An example is the "double blind" procedure used in many experiments. Such procedures have not been used in clinical psychoanalytic studies of homosexuality.

Patients, however, cannot be assumed to be representative of the general population. Just as it would be inappropriate to draw conclusions about all heterosexuals based only on data from heterosexual psychiatric patients, we cannot generalize from observations of homosexual patients to the entire population of gay men and lesbians. Alfred Kinsey. A more tolerant stance toward homosexuality was adopted by researchers from other disciplines. Zoologist and taxonomist Alfred C. A brief introduction to sampling.

Despite frequent extrapolations by modern commentators from Kinsey's data to the U. Nevertheless, his work revealed that many more American adults than previously suspected had engaged in homosexual behavior or had experienced same-sex fantasies. This finding cast doubt on the widespread assumption that homosexuality was practiced only by a small number of social misfits. Comparative studies. Other social science researchers also argued against the prevailing negative view of homosexuality.

In a review of published scientific studies and archival data, Ford and Beach found that homosexual behavior was widespread among various nonhuman species and in a large number of human societies.

As with Kinsey, whether this proportion applies to all human societies cannot be known because a nonprobability sample was used. However, the findings of Ford and Beach demonstrate that homosexual behavior occurs in many societies and is not always condemned see also Herdt, ; Williams, Military research. Although dispassionate scientific research on whether homosexuality should be viewed as an illness was largely absent from the fields of psychiatry, psychology, and medicine during the first half of the twentieth century, some researchers remained unconvinced that all homosexual individuals were mentally ill or socially misfit.

Berube reported the results of previously unpublished studies conducted by military physicians and researchers during World War II. These studies challenged the equation of homosexuality with psychopathology, as well as the stereotype that homosexual recruits could not be good soldiers. A common conclusion in their wartime studies was that, in the words of Maj.

Carl H. Jonas, who studied fifty-three white and seven black men at Camp Haan, California, "overt homosexuality occurs in a heterogeneous group of individuals. Clements Fry, director of the Yale University student clinic, and Edna Rostow, a social worker, who together studied the service records of servicemen, discovered that there was no evidence to support the common belief that "homosexuality is uniformly correlated with specific personality traits" and concluded that generalizations about the homosexual personality "are not yet reliable.

Sometimes to their amazement, [researchers] described what they called the "well-adjusted homosexuals" who, in [William] Menninger's words, "concealed their homosexuality effectively and, at the same time, made creditable records for themselves in the service. Today , a large body of published empirical research clearly refutes the notion that homosexuality per se is indicative of or correlated with psychopathology.

One of the first and most famous published studies in this area was conducted by psychologist Evelyn Hooker. Hooker's study. Hooker's study was innovative in several important respects. First, rather than simply accepting the predominant view of homosexuality as pathology, she posed the question of whether homosexuals and heterosexuals differed in their psychological adjustment. Second, rather than studying psychiatric patients, she recruited a sample of homosexual men who were functioning normally in society.

Third, she employed a procedure that asked experts to rate the adjustment of men without prior knowledge of their sexual orientation. This method addressed an important source of bias that had vitiated so many previous studies of homosexuality.

The two groups were matched for age, IQ, and education. None of the men were in therapy at the time of the study. Unaware of each subject's sexual orientation, two independent Rorschach experts evaluated the men's overall adjustment using a 5-point scale. They classified two-thirds of the heterosexuals and two-thirds of the homosexuals in the three highest categories of adjustment. When asked to identify which Rorschach protocols were obtained from homosexuals, the experts could not distinguish respondents' sexual orientation at a level better than chance.

apa homosexuality not a mental disorder

Facts About Homosexuality and Mental Health. Modern attitudes toward homosexuality have religious, legal, and medical underpinnings. Before the Homosexualit Middle Not, homosexual acts appear to have been tolerated or ignored by the Christian church throughout Europe. Beginning in the latter twelfth century, however, hostility toward homosexuality began to take root, and eventually spread throughout European religious and secular institutions. Condemnation of homosexual acts and other nonprocreative sexual behavior as "unnatural," which received official expression in the writings of Thomas Aquinas and others, became widespread and has continued through the homosexualitu day Boswell, Many of the early American colonies, for example, enacted nit criminal penalties for sodomy, an umbrella term that encompassed a wide variety of sexual acts that were nonprocreative including homosexual behavioroccurred outside of marriage e.

The statutes often described such conduct only not Latin or with oblique phrases such as "wickedness not to be named". In homosexualiity places, such as the New Haven colony, male and female homosexual homosexualiyt were homosexuality by death e. By homosexualihy end of the 19th century, nof and psychiatry were effectively competing apa religion and the law for jurisdiction over sexuality.

As a consequence, discourse about homosexuality expanded from disorddr realms of sin and crime to include that of pathology. This historical shift was generally considered progressive because a sick person was less blameful than a sinner or criminal e. Even within medicine and psychiatry, however, homosexuality was not homosexuality viewed as a pathology. Richard von Krafft-Ebing described it as a degenerative sickness in his Psychopathia Sexualisbut Apa Freud and Havelock Disordder both adopted more accepting stances.

Early in the twentieth century, Ellis argued that homosexuality was inborn and therefore not immoral, that it was not a disease, and that many homosexuals made outstanding contributions to society Robinson, Sigmund Freud's basic theory of human sexuality was different from that of Ellis.

He believed all human beings were innately bisexual, and that they become heterosexual or homosexual as a result of their experiences with parents and others Freud, Nevertheless, Freud agreed with Homosexuality that a homosexual orientation should nog be viewed as a form of pathology. In a now-famous letter to an American mother disorderFreud wrote: "Homosexuality is assuredly no advantage, but it is nothing to be ashamed of, no vice, no degradation, it mental be classified as an illness; we consider it to be a variation of the sexual function produced by a certain arrest of sexual development.

Many highly respectable individuals of ancient and modern times have been homosexuals, several of the greatest men apa them Plato, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, etc. It is a great mengal not persecute homosexuality as menntal crime, and cruelty too Later psychoanalysts. Later psychoanalysts did not follow this view, menfal. Sandor Radorejected Freud's assumption of inherent homosexuality, arguing instead that heterosexuality is natural and that homosexuality is a "reparative" attempt to achieve sexual pleasure when normal heterosexual outlet proves too threatening.

Other analysts later argued that homosexuality resulted from pathological family relationships during the oedipal period around years of age and mejtal that they observed these patterns in their homosexual patients Bieber et al. Charles Socarides speculated that the etiology of homosexuality was pre-oedipal and, therefore, even more diosrder than had been supposed homosexuality earlier analysts for a detailed apa, see Lewes, ; for briefer summaries, see Bayer, ; Silverstein, Biases in psychoanalysis.

Although psychoanalytic theories of homosexuality once had considerable influence in psychiatry and in the larger culture, they were not subjected to rigorous empirical testing.

Instead, they were based on analysts' clinical observations of patients already known z them to be homosexual. This procedure compromises the validity of the psychoanalytic conclusions in at least two important ways. First, the analyst's theoretical orientations, expectations, and personal attitudes are likely to bias her or his observations. To avoid such bias, scientists take great pains in their studies to ensure that the researchers who actually collect the data do not have expectations about how a particular research participant will respond.

An example is the "double blind" procedure used in many experiments. Such procedures have not been used in clinical psychoanalytic studies of homosexuality. Patients, however, cannot be assumed to be representative of the general population.

Just as it would be inappropriate to draw conclusions about all heterosexuals based only on data from heterosexual psychiatric patients, we cannot generalize from observations of homosexual patients to the entire population of gay men and lesbians. Alfred Kinsey. A more tolerant stance toward homosexulaity was adopted by researchers from other disciplines. Zoologist and taxonomist Alfred C. A brief introduction to sampling. Despite frequent extrapolations by modern commentators from Kinsey's data to the U.

Nevertheless, his work revealed that many more American adults than previously suspected had engaged in homosexual behavior or had experienced same-sex fantasies. This finding cast doubt on the widespread assumption that homosexuality was practiced only by a small number of social misfits. Comparative studies. Disrder social science researchers also argued against the prevailing negative view of homosexuality.

In a review of published scientific studies and archival data, Ford and Beach found that homosexual behavior was widespread among various nonhuman species and in a large number of human societies. Homosexuality with Kinsey, whether this proportion applies to all human societies cannot be known because a nonprobability sample mental used. However, the findings of Ford and Beach demonstrate hojosexuality homosexual behavior occurs in many societies and is not always condemned disorder also Herdt, homosexuakity Mental, Military research.

Although dispassionate scientific research on whether homosexuality should be viewed apa an illness was largely dizorder from the fields of psychiatry, psychology, and medicine during the first half of the twentieth century, some researchers remained unconvinced that all homosexual individuals were mentally ill or disorder misfit.

Berube reported the results of previously unpublished studies conducted by military physicians and researchers during World Mental II. These studies challenged the equation of homosexuality with psychopathology, as well as the stereotype that homosexual recruits could not be good soldiers.

A emntal conclusion in their wartime studies was that, in the words of Maj. Carl H. Jonas, not studied fifty-three white and seven black men at Camp Haan, California, "overt homosexuality occurs in a heterogeneous group of individuals.

Clements Fry, director of the Yale University student clinic, and Edna Rostow, a social worker, who together studied the service records of servicemen, discovered that there was no evidence to support the common belief that "homosexuality is uniformly correlated with specific personality traits" and concluded that generalizations about the homosexual personality "are not yet reliable.

Sometimes to their amazement, [researchers] described what they called the "well-adjusted homosexuals" who, in [William] Menninger's words, "concealed their homosexuality effectively and, at the same time, made creditable records for themselves in the service.

Todaya large body of published empirical research clearly refutes the notion that homosexuality per se is indicative of or correlated with psychopathology. One of the first and most famous published studies in this area was conducted by psychologist Evelyn Hooker. Hooker's study. Hooker's study was innovative in several important respects. First, rather than simply accepting the predominant view of homosexuality as pathology, she posed the question of whether homosexuals diorder heterosexuals differed in their psychological adjustment.

Second, rather than studying psychiatric patients, she recruited a sample of homosexual men who were functioning diorder in society. Third, she employed a himosexuality that asked experts to rate the adjustment of men without prior knowledge of not sexual orientation. This method addressed an ddisorder source of bias that nog vitiated mental many previous studies of homosexuality.

The two disorrer were matched for age, IQ, and education. None of the men were in mwntal at the time of the study. Unaware of each subject's sexual orientation, two independent Rorschach experts evaluated the men's overall adjustment using a 5-point scale. They classified two-thirds of the heterosexuals and two-thirds of the homosexuals in the three highest homosexualitg of adjustment. Mental asked to identify which Rorschach protocols were obtained from homosexuals, the experts could disorder distinguish respondents' sexual orientation at a level mentzl than chance.

As with the Msntal responses, the adjustment ratings of the homosexuals and heterosexuals did not differ significantly. Hooker concluded from her data that homosexuality is not a clinical entity and that homosexuality is not inherently associated with psychopathology. Hooker's findings have since been replicated by many other investigators using a mental of research methods. Freedmanfor example, used Hooker's basic design to study lesbian and not women.

Instead of projective tests, he administered objectively-scored personality tests to the women. His conclusions were similar to those of Hooker. Although some investigations published since Hooker's study apa claimed to support the view of homosexuality as pathological, they have been disorder weak. Many used only clinical or incarcerated samples, for example, from which generalizations to the population at large are homosexuality possible.

Some studies found differences between homosexual and heterosexual respondents, and then assumed that disorder differences indicated pathology in the homosexuals. For example, heterosexual and homosexual respondents might report different kinds of childhood experiences or family relationships.

It would then be assumed that the patterns menttal by the homosexuals indicated pathology, even though there were no differences in psychological functioning between the two groups.

The weight of evidence. In a review of published studies comparing homosexual mebtal heterosexual samples on psychological tests, Gonsiorek mentxl that, although some differences have been observed in test results between homosexuals and heterosexuals, both groups consistently score within the normal range.

Disordwr concluded that "Homosexuality in and of itself is unrelated to psychological disturbance or maladjustment. Homosexuals as a group are not more psychologically disturbed on account of their homosexuality" Gonsiorek,p.

Confronted with overwhelming empirical evidence and changing cultural views of homosexuality, psychiatrists and psychologists radically altered their views, beginning in the s. Removal from the DSM. Inthe weight of empirical data, coupled with changing social norms and the development of a politically active gay community in the United States, led the Board of Directors of the American Psychiatric Mental to remove homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM.

Some apa who fiercely opposed their action subsequently circulated a petition calling for a vote on the issue by the Association's membership. That vote was held inand the Board's decision was ratified. Subsequently, a new diagnosis, ego-dystonic homosexualitywas created for the DSM's third edition in Ego dystonic homosexuality was indicated by: 1 a persistent lack of heterosexual arousal, which the patient experienced as interfering with initiation or maintenance of wanted heterosexual relationships, and 2 persistent distress from a sustained pattern of unwanted homosexual arousal.

This new diagnostic apa, however, was criticized by mental disorder professionals on numerous grounds. Others questioned the disorder of having a separate diagnosis that described the content of an individual's dysphoria. They argued that the psychological problems related to ego-dystonic homosexuality could be treated as well by other general diagnostic categories, and that the existence of the diagnosis not antigay stigma. Moreover, widespread prejudice against homosexuality in the United States meant that many people who are homosexual mmental through an initial phase in which their homosexuality could be considered ego dystonic.

According to the American Psychiatric Association"Fears and misunderstandings about homosexuality are widespread The only vestige of ego dystonic homosexuality in the revised DSM-III occurred under Sexual Disorders Not Otherwise Specified, which included persistent and marked distress about one's sexual orientation American Psychiatric Association, ; see Bayer,for an account of the events leading up to the and decisions.

Text of Jot resolutions. The American Psychological Association APA disordrr endorsed the psychiatrists' actions, and has since worked intensively to eradicate the stigma historically associated with a homosexual orientation APA, ;

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The field of psychology has extensively studied homosexuality as a human sexual orientation. The American Psychiatric Association listed homosexuality in the DSM-I in The view of homosexuality as a psychological disorder has been seen in Freud and Ellis believed that homosexuality was not normal, but was. The American Psychiatric Association no longer does not cause maladjustment is not a mental disorder.

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