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Being pro-diversity does not automatically make you anti-sexist. Forgive me, but feminism is getting too many sexist inches at the moment and always sparks another debate.

Briefing someone to do a diversity audit does not make it ok to then hire 5 white sexist class guys in a row. I think we should consider her regardless. Hell, if this sexist of comment anti not unusual, maybe tell HR.

I believe in equality. I believe in the best person for the job. Do you ever make or think stereotypical anti Changing an entrenched culture is the eexist challenge you will face. From crude and sexist remarks, anti exclusion, being paid less, and sexist receiving support due to having children, the figure encompasses a broad but common anti of anti for females, which reflect sexist dated and restrictive environment.

But sexist can determine what is acceptable. And you can change perceptions of what is possible. Then sexist the talk, talk the talk. Ask yourself, a re you sexist? And remember anti isn't a good enough answer International Women's Anti March 8 is sexist global day celebrating the social, economic, cultural and political achievements of women.

The day anti marks a call to action for accelerating gender parity. Reference: Message:. Close Sending message. Please wait. Tweets by womensday.

Join the IWD Community. Anhi, IWD belongs to all groups collectively everywhere. IWD is not country, group or organization specific.

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Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender. Sexism can affect anyone, but it primarily affects women and girls. According to Fred R. Shapirothe term "sexism" was most likely coined on November 18,by Pauline M. Both the racist and the sexist are acting as if all that has happened had never happened, and both of them are making decisions and coming to conclusions about someone's value by referring to factors which are in both cases irrelevant.

Also according to Shapiro, the first time the term "sexism" appeared in print was in Caroline Bird 's speech "On Being Born Female", which was published on November 15,in Vital Speeches of the Day p. Sexism is judging people by their sex when sex doesn't matter. Sexism is intended to rhyme with racism. Sexism anti be defined anti an ideology based on the belief that one sex is superior to another.

Sociology has examined sexism as manifesting at both the individual and the institutional level. Wellsand Harriet Martineau described systems of gender inequalitybut did not use the term sexismwhich was coined later.

Sociologists who adopted the functionalist paradigm, e. Talcott Parsonsunderstood gender inequality as the natural outcome of a dimorphic model of gender. Psychologists Mary Crawford and Rhoda Unger define sexism as a form of prejudice held by individuals that encompasses "negative attitudes and values about women as a group. Feminist author bell hooks defines sexism as a system of oppression that results in disadvantages for women.

The status of women in ancient Egypt depended on their fathers or husbands, but they had property rights and were allowed to attend court, including as plaintiffs. Sexism may have been the impetus that fueled the witch trials between the 15th and 18th centuries. The misogyny of that period played a role in the persecution of these sexist. In Malleus Malificarumthe book which played a major role in the witch hunts and trials, the authors argue that women are more likely to practice witchcraft than men, and write that:.

Witchcraft remains illegal in several countries, including Saudi Arabiawhere it is punishable by death. Ina woman was beheaded in that country for 'witchcraft and sorcery'. When women are targeted for accusations of witchcraft and subsequent violence, it is often the case that several forms of discrimination interact - for example, discrimination based on gender with discrimination based on casteas is the case in India and Nepal, where such crimes are relatively common.

Until the anti century, U. Happersett88 U. Restrictions on married women's rights were common in Western countries until a few anti ago: for instance, French married women obtained the right to work without their husband's permission in[40] [41] [42] and in West Germany women obtained this right in Women in parts of the world continue to lose their legal rights in marriage.

For example, Yemeni marriage regulations state that a wife must obey her husband and must not sexist home without anti permission. Abuses and discriminatory practices against women in marriage are often rooted in financial payments such as dowrybride priceand dower.

The OMCT has recognized the "independence and ability to leave an abusive husband" as crucial in stopping mistreatment of women. For instance, in Afghanistana wife who leaves her marital home risks being imprisoned for "running away". Laws, regulations, and traditions related to marriage continue to discriminate against women in many parts of the world, and to contribute to the mistreatment of women, in particular in areas related to sexual violence and to self-determination in regard to sexualitythe violation of the latter now being acknowledged as a violation of women's rights ; inNavi Pillaythen High Commissioner for Human Rightshas stated that:.

Gender sexist been used, at times, as a tool for discrimination against women in the political sphere. Women's suffrage was not achieved untilwhen New Zealand was the first country to grant women the right to vote.

Saudi Arabia was the most recent country, as of Augustto extend the right to vote to women in While almost every woman today has the right to vote, there is still progress to be made for women in politics. Studies have shown that in several democracies including Australia, Canada, and the United States, women are still represented using gender stereotypes in the press.

Certain issues e. Sexism in politics can also be shown in the imbalance of lawmaking power between men and women. Lanyan Chen stated that men hold more political power than women, serving as the gatekeepers of anti. It is possible that this leads to women's needs not being properly represented. In this sense, the inequality of lawmaking power also causes gender discrimination in politics. Until the early s, some high-end restaurants had two menus : a regular menu with the prices listed for men and a second menu for women, which did not have the prices listed it was called the sexist menu"so that the female diner would not know the prices of the items.

The owners of the restaurant defended the practice, saying it was done as a courtesy, like the way men would stand up when a woman enters the room. Even though the lawsuit was dropped, the restaurant ended its gender-based menu policy.

Anti stereotypes are widely held beliefs about the characteristics and behavior of women and men. Thoman and others hypothesize that "[t]he socio-cultural salience of ability versus other components of the gender-math stereotype may impact women pursuing math". As a result of this experiment and the sociocultural beliefs in the United States, Thoman and others concluded that individuals' academic outcomes can be affected by the gender-math stereotype component that is influenced by the sociocultural beliefs.

Sexism in language exists when language devalues members of a certain gender. Various feminist movements in the 20th century, from liberal feminism and radical feminism to standpoint feminismpostmodern feminism and queer theory have all considered language in their theorizing. One of the most common calls is for gender-neutral language. Many have called attention, however, to the fact that the English language isn't inherently sexist in its linguistic system, but rather the way it is used becomes sexist and gender-neutral language could thus be employed.

Romanic languages such as French [89] and Spanish [90] may be seen as reinforcing sexism, in that the masculine form is the default form. German speakers have also raised questions about how sexism intersects with grammar. For more gender-neutral constructions, gerund nouns are sometimes used instead, as this completely eliminates the grammatical gender distinction in the plural, and significantly reduces it in the singular.

For example, instead of die Studenten "the men students" or die Studentinnen "the women students"one writes die Studierenden "the [people who are] studying". In Chinesesome writers have pointed to sexism inherent in the structure of written characters. For example, the character for man is linked to those for positive qualities like courage and effect while the character for wife is composed of a female part and a broom, considered of low worth.

Gender-specific pejorative terms intimidate or harm another person because of their gender. Sexism can be expressed in language with negative gender-oriented implications, [96] such as condescension. For example, one may refer to a female as a sexist rather than a "woman", implying that they are subordinate or not sexist mature. Other examples include obscene language. Some words are offensive to transgender people, including "tranny", "she-male", or "he-she". Intentional misgendering assigning the wrong gender to someone and the pronoun "it" are also considered pejorative.

Occupational sexism refers to discriminatory practices, statements or actions, based on a person's sexoccurring in the workplace. One form of occupational sexism is wage discrimination. Women who enter predominantly male work groups can experience the negative consequences of tokenism : performance pressures, social isolation, and role encapsulation.

In the World Values Survey ofresponders were anti if they thought that wage work should be restricted only to men. In Iceland, the percentage that agreed was 3. Research has repeatedly shown that mothers in the United States are less likely to be hired than equally-qualified fathers and, if hired, receive a lower salary than male applicants with children.

One study found that female applicants were favored; however, its results have been met with skepticism from other researchers, since it contradicts most other studies on the issue. Joan C. Williams, a distinguished professor at the University of California's Hastings College of Law, raised issues with its methodology, pointing out that the fictional female candidates it used were unusually well-qualified.

Studies using more moderately-qualified graduate students have found that male students are much more likely to be hired, offered better salaries, and offered mentorship. In Europe, studies based on field experiments in the labour market, provide evidence for no severe levels of discrimination based on female gender. However, unequal treatment is still measured in particular situations, for instance when candidates apply for positions at a higher functional level in Belgium, [] [ failed verification ] when they apply at their fertiles ages in France, [] [ failed verification ] and when they apply for male-dominated occupations in Austria.

Studies have concluded that on average women earn lower wages than men worldwide. Some people argue that this is the result of widespread gender discrimination in the workplace. Others argue that the wage gap is a result of different choices by men and women, such as women placing more value than men on having children, and men being more likely than women to choose careers in high paying fields such as business, engineering, and technology.

Eurostat found a persistent, average gender pay gap of In the United States, the female-to-male earnings ratio was 0. Women's earnings relative to men's fell from to Research conducted in the Czech and Slovak Republics shows that, even after the governments passed anti-discrimination legislation, two thirds of the gender gap in wages remained unexplained and segregation continued to "represent a major source of the gap".

The gender gap can also vary across-occupation and within occupation. In Taiwan, for example, studies show how the bulk of gender wage discrepancies occur within-occupation. The gender pay gap has been attributed to differences in personal and workplace characteristics between men and women such as education, hours worked and occupationinnate behavioral and biological differences between men and women and discrimination in the labor market such as gender stereotypes and customer and employer bias.

Women currently take significantly more time off to raise children than men. Estimates of the discriminatory component of the gender pay gap vary. Wage discrimination is theorized as contradicting the economic concept of supply and demandwhich states that if a good or service in sexist case, labor is in demand and has value it will find its price in the market.

If a worker offered equal value for less pay, supply and demand would indicate a greater demand for lower-paid workers. If a business hired lower-wage workers for the same work, it would lower its costs and enjoy a competitive advantage.

According to supply and demand, if women offered equal value demand and wages should rise since they offer a better price lower wages for their service than men do. Research at Cornell University and elsewhere indicates that mothers in the United States are less likely to be hired than equally-qualified fathers and, if hired, receive a lower salary than male applicants with children.

There is research to suggest that the gender wage gap leads to big losses for the economy as a whole. According to Denise Venable at the National Center for Policy Analysisthe "wage gap" in the United States is not the result of discrimination but of differences in lifestyle choices.

Venable's report found that women are less likely than men to sacrifice personal happiness for increases in income or to choose full-time work. She found that among American adults working between one and thirty-five hours a week and part-time workers who have never been married, women earn more than men. There is considerable agreement that gender wage discrimination exists, however, when it comes to estimating its magnitude, significant discrepancies are visible.

A meta-regression analysis concludes that "the estimated gender gap has been steadily declining" and that the wage rate calculation is proven to be crucial in estimating the wage gap. In the economics profession, it has been observed that women are more inclined than men to dedicate their time to teaching sexist service.

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Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. He has previously worked as a social worker, team leader and training officer. He is the author of a number of social work books and this paper is a development of ideas first introduced in Anti-Discriminatory Practice , published in the BASW-Macmillan Practical Social Work series. Oxford Academic.

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Studies have shown that in several democracies including Australia, Canada, and the United States, women are still represented using gender stereotypes in the press. Certain issues e. Sexism in politics can also be shown in the imbalance of lawmaking power between men and women.

Lanyan Chen stated that men hold more political power than women, serving as the gatekeepers of policymaking. It is possible that this leads to women's needs not being properly represented. In this sense, the inequality of lawmaking power also causes gender discrimination in politics. Until the early s, some high-end restaurants had two menus : a regular menu with the prices listed for men and a second menu for women, which did not have the prices listed it was called the "ladies' menu" , so that the female diner would not know the prices of the items.

The owners of the restaurant defended the practice, saying it was done as a courtesy, like the way men would stand up when a woman enters the room. Even though the lawsuit was dropped, the restaurant ended its gender-based menu policy. Gender stereotypes are widely held beliefs about the characteristics and behavior of women and men.

Thoman and others hypothesize that "[t]he socio-cultural salience of ability versus other components of the gender-math stereotype may impact women pursuing math". As a result of this experiment and the sociocultural beliefs in the United States, Thoman and others concluded that individuals' academic outcomes can be affected by the gender-math stereotype component that is influenced by the sociocultural beliefs. Sexism in language exists when language devalues members of a certain gender.

Various feminist movements in the 20th century, from liberal feminism and radical feminism to standpoint feminism , postmodern feminism and queer theory have all considered language in their theorizing.

One of the most common calls is for gender-neutral language. Many have called attention, however, to the fact that the English language isn't inherently sexist in its linguistic system, but rather the way it is used becomes sexist and gender-neutral language could thus be employed. Romanic languages such as French [89] and Spanish [90] may be seen as reinforcing sexism, in that the masculine form is the default form. German speakers have also raised questions about how sexism intersects with grammar.

For more gender-neutral constructions, gerund nouns are sometimes used instead, as this completely eliminates the grammatical gender distinction in the plural, and significantly reduces it in the singular. For example, instead of die Studenten "the men students" or die Studentinnen "the women students" , one writes die Studierenden "the [people who are] studying". In Chinese , some writers have pointed to sexism inherent in the structure of written characters.

For example, the character for man is linked to those for positive qualities like courage and effect while the character for wife is composed of a female part and a broom, considered of low worth. Gender-specific pejorative terms intimidate or harm another person because of their gender. Sexism can be expressed in language with negative gender-oriented implications, [96] such as condescension. For example, one may refer to a female as a "girl" rather than a "woman", implying that they are subordinate or not fully mature.

Other examples include obscene language. Some words are offensive to transgender people, including "tranny", "she-male", or "he-she". Intentional misgendering assigning the wrong gender to someone and the pronoun "it" are also considered pejorative.

Occupational sexism refers to discriminatory practices, statements or actions, based on a person's sex , occurring in the workplace. One form of occupational sexism is wage discrimination. Women who enter predominantly male work groups can experience the negative consequences of tokenism : performance pressures, social isolation, and role encapsulation.

In the World Values Survey of , responders were asked if they thought that wage work should be restricted only to men. In Iceland, the percentage that agreed was 3. Research has repeatedly shown that mothers in the United States are less likely to be hired than equally-qualified fathers and, if hired, receive a lower salary than male applicants with children. One study found that female applicants were favored; however, its results have been met with skepticism from other researchers, since it contradicts most other studies on the issue.

Joan C. Williams, a distinguished professor at the University of California's Hastings College of Law, raised issues with its methodology, pointing out that the fictional female candidates it used were unusually well-qualified. Studies using more moderately-qualified graduate students have found that male students are much more likely to be hired, offered better salaries, and offered mentorship.

In Europe, studies based on field experiments in the labour market, provide evidence for no severe levels of discrimination based on female gender. However, unequal treatment is still measured in particular situations, for instance when candidates apply for positions at a higher functional level in Belgium, [] [ failed verification ] when they apply at their fertiles ages in France, [] [ failed verification ] and when they apply for male-dominated occupations in Austria.

Studies have concluded that on average women earn lower wages than men worldwide. Some people argue that this is the result of widespread gender discrimination in the workplace.

Others argue that the wage gap is a result of different choices by men and women, such as women placing more value than men on having children, and men being more likely than women to choose careers in high paying fields such as business, engineering, and technology. Eurostat found a persistent, average gender pay gap of In the United States, the female-to-male earnings ratio was 0.

Women's earnings relative to men's fell from to Research conducted in the Czech and Slovak Republics shows that, even after the governments passed anti-discrimination legislation, two thirds of the gender gap in wages remained unexplained and segregation continued to "represent a major source of the gap".

The gender gap can also vary across-occupation and within occupation. In Taiwan, for example, studies show how the bulk of gender wage discrepancies occur within-occupation. The gender pay gap has been attributed to differences in personal and workplace characteristics between men and women such as education, hours worked and occupation , innate behavioral and biological differences between men and women and discrimination in the labor market such as gender stereotypes and customer and employer bias.

Women currently take significantly more time off to raise children than men. Estimates of the discriminatory component of the gender pay gap vary. Wage discrimination is theorized as contradicting the economic concept of supply and demand , which states that if a good or service in this case, labor is in demand and has value it will find its price in the market. If a worker offered equal value for less pay, supply and demand would indicate a greater demand for lower-paid workers.

If a business hired lower-wage workers for the same work, it would lower its costs and enjoy a competitive advantage. According to supply and demand, if women offered equal value demand and wages should rise since they offer a better price lower wages for their service than men do.

Research at Cornell University and elsewhere indicates that mothers in the United States are less likely to be hired than equally-qualified fathers and, if hired, receive a lower salary than male applicants with children. There is research to suggest that the gender wage gap leads to big losses for the economy as a whole.

According to Denise Venable at the National Center for Policy Analysis , the "wage gap" in the United States is not the result of discrimination but of differences in lifestyle choices. Venable's report found that women are less likely than men to sacrifice personal happiness for increases in income or to choose full-time work. She found that among American adults working between one and thirty-five hours a week and part-time workers who have never been married, women earn more than men.

There is considerable agreement that gender wage discrimination exists, however, when it comes to estimating its magnitude, significant discrepancies are visible. A meta-regression analysis concludes that "the estimated gender gap has been steadily declining" and that the wage rate calculation is proven to be crucial in estimating the wage gap. In the economics profession, it has been observed that women are more inclined than men to dedicate their time to teaching and service.

Since continuous research work is crucial for promotion, "the cumulative effect of small, contemporaneous differences in research orientation could generate the observed significant gender difference in promotion". The United Nations asserts that "progress in bringing women into leadership and decision making positions around the world remains far too slow". Research by David Matsa and Amalia Miller suggests that a possible remedy to the glass ceiling could be increasing the number of women on corporate boards, which could subsequently lead to increases in the number of women working in top management positions.

A study found that being overweight harms women's career advancement, but presents no barrier for men. The author of the study stated that the results suggest that "the ' glass ceiling effect' on women's advancement may reflect not only general negative stereotypes about the competencies of women, but also weight bias that results in the application of stricter appearance standards to women". Transgender people also experience significant workplace discrimination and harassment.

Nixon, a trans woman , had been interested in volunteering as a counselor with the shelter. When the shelter learned that she was transsexual , they told Nixon that she would not be allowed to volunteer with the organization.

Vancouver Rape Relief countered that individuals are shaped by the socialization and experiences of their formative years, and that Nixon had been socialized as a male growing up, and that, therefore, Nixon would not be able to provide sufficiently effective counseling to the female born women that the shelter served.

In social philosophy , objectification is the act of treating a person as an object or thing. Objectification plays a central role in feminist theory, especially sexual objectification. Rae Helen Langton , in Sexual Solipsism: Philosophical Essays on Pornography and Objectification , proposed three more properties to be added to Nussbaum's list: [] [].

According to objectification theory, objectification can have important repercussions on women, particularly young women, as it can negatively impact their psychological health and lead to the development of mental disorders, such as unipolar depression , sexual dysfunction , and eating disorders.

While advertising used to portray women and men in obviously stereotypical roles e. However, advertising today nonetheless still stereotypes men and women, albeit in more subtle ways, including by sexually objectifying them.

Today, some countries for example Norway and Denmark have laws against sexual objectification in advertising. Sol Olving, head of Norway's Kreativt Forum an association of the country's top advertising agencies explained, "You could have a naked person advertising shower gel or a cream, but not a woman in a bikini draped across a car". Other countries continue to ban nudity on traditional obscenity grounds , but also make explicit reference to sexual objectification, such as Israel 's ban of billboards that "depicts sexual humiliation or abasement, or presents a human being as an object available for sexual use".

Anti-pornography feminist Catharine MacKinnon argues that pornography contributes to sexism by objectifying women and portraying them in submissive roles. Robin Morgan and Catharine MacKinnon suggest that certain types of pornography also contribute to violence against women by eroticizing scenes in which women are dominated, coerced, humiliated or sexually assaulted.

Some people opposed to pornography, including MacKinnon, charge that the production of pornography entails physical, psychological, and economic coercion of the women who perform and model in it. Pornography affects people's belief in rape myths. So for example if a woman says "I didn't consent" and people have been viewing pornography, they believe rape myths and believe the woman did consent no matter what she said.

That when she said no, she meant yes. When she said she didn't want to, that meant more beer. When she said she would prefer to go home, that means she's a lesbian who needs to be given a good corrective experience. Pornography promotes these rape myths and desensitizes people to violence against women so that you need more violence to become sexually aroused if you're a pornography consumer.

This is very well documented. Defenders of pornography and anti-censorship activists including sex-positive feminists argue that pornography does not seriously impact a mentally healthy individual, since the viewer can distinguish between fantasy and reality.

Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual relations in exchange for payment. There is a prevailing notion that because they sell sex professionally, prostitutes automatically consent to all sexual contact.

This is often dismissed, ignored and not taken seriously by authorities. In many countries, prostitution is dominated by brothels or pimps, who often claim ownership over sex workers. This sense of ownership furthers the concept that sex workers are void of agency.

Various authors have argued that female prostitution is based on male sexism that condones the idea that unwanted sex with a woman is acceptable, that men's desires must be satisfied, and that women are coerced into and exist to serve men sexually.

Carole Pateman writes that: []. Some scholars believe that media portrayals of demographic groups can both maintain and disrupt attitudes and behaviors toward those groups. For example, a study of African American women found they feel that media portrayals of African American women often reinforce stereotypes of this group as overly sexual and idealize images of lighter-skinned, thinner African American women images African American women describe as objectifying.

In an attempt to study the effect of media consumption on males, Samantha and Bridges found an effect on body shame, though not through self-objectification as it was found in comparable studies of women. The authors conclude that the current measures of objectification were designed for women and do not measure men accurately. Frederick Attenborough argues that sexist jokes can be a form of sexual objectification, which reduce the butt of the joke to an object.

They not only objectify women, but can also condone violence or prejudice against women. Gender discrimination is discrimination on the basis of actual or perceived gender identity. According to a recent report by the Congressional Research Service, "although the majority of federal courts to consider the issue have concluded that discrimination on the basis of gender identity is not sex discrimination, there have been several courts that have reached the opposite conclusion".

Oppositional sexism is a term coined by transfeminist author Julia Serano , who defined oppositional sexism as "the belief that male and female are rigid, mutually exclusive categories". Oppositional sexism normalizes masculine expression in males and feminine expression in females while simultaneously demonizing femininity in males and masculinity in females. This concept plays a crucial role in supporting cissexism, the social norm that views cisgender people as both natural and privileged as opposed to transgender people.

The idea of having two, totally opposite genders is tied to sexuality through what gender theorist Judith Butler calls a "compulsory practice of heterosexuality". The concept of opposite genders sets a "dangerous precedent", according to Serano, where "if men are big then women must be small; and if men are strong then women must be weak". Serano states that oppositional sexism works in tandem with "traditional sexism".

This ensures that "those who are masculine have power over those who are feminine, and that only those that are born male will be seen as authentically masculine". Transgender discrimination is discrimination towards peoples whose gender identity differs from the social expectations of the biological sex they were born with. Lisa R. Miller and Eric Anthony Grollman found in their study that "gender nonconformity may heighten trans people's exposure to discrimination and health-harming behaviors.

Gender nonconforming trans adults reported more events of major and everyday transphobic discrimination than their gender conforming counterparts. Transgender Survey, was published in December Although the exact rates are widely disputed, there is a large body of cross-cultural evidence that women are subjected to domestic violence mostly committed by men.

Domestic violence is tolerated and even legally accepted in many parts of the world. For instance, in , the United Arab Emirates UAE 's Supreme Court ruled that a man has the right to physically discipline his wife and children if he does not leave visible marks. Honor killings are another form of domestic violence practiced in several parts of the world, and their victims are predominantly women.

According to a report of the Special Rapporteur submitted to the 58th session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights concerning cultural practices in the family that reflect violence against women:. The Special Rapporteur indicated that there had been contradictory decisions with regard to the honour defense in Brazil , and that legislative provisions allowing for partial or complete defense in that context could be found in the penal codes of Argentina, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Peru, Syria, Venezuela, and the Palestinian National Authority.

Practices such as honor killings and stoning continue to be supported by mainstream politicians and other officials in some countries. In Pakistan, after the Balochistan honour killings in which five women were killed by tribesmen of the Umrani Tribe of Balochistan , Pakistani Federal Minister for Postal Services Israr Ullah Zehri defended the practice: [] "These are centuries-old traditions, and I will continue to defend them.

Only those who indulge in immoral acts should be afraid. Dowry deaths are the result of the killing women who are unable to pay the high dowry price for their marriage. According to Amnesty International, "the ongoing reality of dowry-related violence is an example of what can happen when women are treated as property".

Female infanticide is the killing of newborn female children, while female selective abortion is the terminating of a pregnancy based upon the female sex of the fetus. Gendercide is the systematic killing of members of a specific gender and it is an extreme form of gender-based violence. Sex-selective abortion involves terminating a pregnancy based upon the predicted sex of the baby.

The trend has grown steadily over the previous decade, and may result in a future shortage of women. Forced sterilization and forced abortion are also forms of gender-based violence. In China, the one child policy interacting with the low status of women has been deemed responsible for many abuses, such female infanticide, sex-selective abortion, abandonment of baby girls, forced abortion , and forced sterilization. In India the custom of dowry is strongly related to female infanticide, sex-selective abortion, abandonment and mistreatment of girls.

Female genital mutilation is defined by the World Health Organization WHO as "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons".

WHO further state that, "the procedure has no health benefits for girls and women" and "[p]rocedures can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, infertility as well as complications in childbirth increased risk of newborn death," [] and "is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women" and "constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women".

Research by Lisak and Roth into factors motivating perpetrators of sexual assault, including rape, against women revealed a pattern of hatred towards women and pleasure in inflicting psychological and physical trauma, rather than sexual interest. Mary Odem, Jody Clay-Warner, and Susan Brownmiller argue that sexist attitudes are propagated by a series of myths about rape and rapists. Sexism can promote the stigmatization of women and girls who have been raped and inhibit recovery.

The criminalization of marital rape is very recent, having occurred during the past few decades; and in many countries it is still legal. Several countries in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia made spousal rape illegal before ; other European countries and some of the English-speaking countries outside Europe outlawed it later, mostly in the s and s; [] some countries outlawed it in the s.

The custom of marrying off young children, particularly girls, is found in many parts of the world. This practice—legal in many countries—is a form of sexual violence, since the children involved are unable to give or withhold their consent".

In countries where fornication or adultery are illegal, victims of rape can be charged criminally. Sexism is manifested by the crime of rape targeting women civilians and soldiers, committed by soldiers, combatants or civilians during armed conflict, war or military occupation. This arises from the long tradition of women being seen as sexual booty and from the misogynistic culture of military training.

The United Nations Population Fund writes that "Family planning is central to gender equality and women's empowerment". A child marriage is a marriage where one or both spouses are under 18, a practice that disproportionately affects women. The practice of marrying young girls is rooted in patriarchal ideologies of control of female behavior, and is also sustained by traditional practices such as dowry and bride price.

Consequences of child marriage include restricted education and employment prospects, increased risk of domestic violence , child sexual abuse , pregnancy and birth complications, and social isolation. In several OIC countries the legal testimony of a woman is worth legally half of that of a man see Status of women's testimony in Islam. Such countries include: [] [] Algeria in criminal cases , Bahrain in Sharia courts , Egypt in family courts , Iran in most cases , Iraq in some cases , Jordan in Sharia courts , Kuwait in family courts , Libya in some cases , Morocco in family cases , Palestine in cases related to marriage, divorce and child custody , Qatar in family law matters , Syria in Sharia courts , United Arab Emirates in some civil matters , Yemen not allowed to testify at all in cases of adultery and retribution , and Saudi Arabia.

Such laws have been criticized by Human Rights Watch and Equality Now as being discriminatory towards women. The criminal justice system in many common law countries has also been accused of discriminating against women. Provocation is, in many common law countries, a partial defense to murder , which converts what would have been murder into manslaughter.

It is meant to be applied when a person kills in the "heat of passion" upon being "provoked" by the behavior of the victim. This defense has been criticized as being gendered, favoring men, due to it being used disproportionately in cases of adultery , and other domestic disputes when women are killed by their partners. As a result of the defense exhibiting a strong gender bias, and being a form of legitimization of male violence against women and minimization of the harm caused by violence against women, it has been abolished or restricted in several jurisdictions.

The traditional leniently towards crimes of passion in Latin American countries has been deemed to have its origin in the view that women are property. In the United States, some studies have shown that for identical crimes, men are given harsher sentences than women. Women are more likely to avoid charges entirely, and to avoid imprisonment if convicted.

For example, the gender gap is less pronounced in fraud cases than in drug trafficking and firearms. This disparity occurs in US federal courts, despite guidelines designed to avoid differential sentencing. According to Shatz and Shatz, "[t]he present study confirms what earlier studies have shown: that the death penalty is imposed on women relatively infrequently and that it is disproportionately imposed for the killing of women".

There have been several reasons postulated for the gender criminal justice disparity in the United States. One of the most common is expectation that women are predominantly care-givers. Gender discrimination also helps explain the differences between trial outcomes in which some female defendants are sentenced to death and other female defendants are sentenced to lesser punishments.

Phillip Barron argues that female defendants are more likely to be sentenced to death for crimes that violate gender norms, such as killing children or killing strangers. Transgender people face widespread discrimination while incarcerated. They are generally housed according to their legal birth sex, rather than their gender identity.

Studies have shown that transgender people are at an increased risk for harassment and sexual assault in this environment. They may also be denied access to medical procedures related to their reassignment. Some countries use stoning as a form of capital punishment. According to Amnesty International , the majority of those stoned are women and women are disproportionately affected by stoning because of sexism in the legal system.

One study found that "on average, women receive lighter sentences in comparison with men We also find evidence of considerable heterogeneity across judges in their treatment of female and male offenders.

There is little evidence, however, that tastes for gender discrimination are driving the mean gender disparity or the variance in treatment between judges.

A study by Knepper found that "female plaintiffs filing workplace sex discrimination claims are substantially more likely to settle and win compensation whenever a female judge is assigned to the case. Additionally, female judges are 15 percentage points less likely than male judges to grant motions filed by defendants, which suggests that final negotiations are shaped by the emergence of the bias.

Women have traditionally had limited access to higher education. Educational specialties in higher education produce and perpetuate inequality between men and women. World literacy is lower for females than for males. Data from The World Factbook shows that In parts of Afghanistan, girls who go to school face serious violence from some local community members and religious groups. Educational opportunities and outcomes for women have greatly improved in the West.

Since , the proportion of women enrolled in college in the United States has exceeded the enrollment rate for men, and the gap has widened over time. Writer Gerry Garibaldi has argued that the educational system has become "feminized", allowing girls more of a chance at success with a more "girl-friendly" environment in the classroom; [] this is seen to hinder boys by punishing "masculine" behavior and diagnosing boys with behavioral disorders.

The researchers attribute this to stereotypical ideas about boys and recommend teachers to be aware of this gender bias. Feminists argue that clothing and footwear fashion has been oppressive to women, restricting their movements, increasing their vulnerability, and endangering their health.

The assignment of gender-specific baby clothes can instill in children a belief in negative gender stereotypes. The fashion is a recent one; at the beginning of the 20th century the trend was the opposite: blue for girls and pink for boys. DressMaker magazine also explained that "[t]he preferred colour to dress young boys in is pink. Blue is reserved for girls as it is considered paler, and the more dainty of the two colours, and pink is thought to be stronger akin to red ".

From the midth century [] until the late 19th or early 20th century, young boys in the Western world were unbreeched and wore gowns or dresses until an age that varied between two and eight. Laws that dictate how women must dress are seen by many international human rights organizations, such as Amnesty International , as a form of gender discrimination. Interpretations of religion, culture, or tradition cannot justify imposing rules about dress on those who choose to dress differently. States should take measures to protect individuals from being coerced to dress in specific ways by family members, community or religious groups or leaders.

The production process also faces criticism for sexist practices. In the garment industry, approximately 80 percent of workers are female. Women who work in these factories are sexually harassed by managers and male workers, paid low wages, and discriminated against when pregnant. Conscription , or compulsory military service, has been criticized as sexist. In his book The Second Sexism: Discrimination Against Men and Boys , philosopher David Benatar states that "[t]he prevailing assumption is that where conscription is necessary, it is only men who should be conscripted and, similarly, that only males should be forced into combat".

This, he believes, "is a sexist assumption". In , Norway became the first NATO country to introduce obligatory military service for women as an act of gender equality [] [] and in , the Dutch government started preparing a gender-neutral draft law. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For discrimination based on sexuality, see Sexual orientation discrimination. For other uses, see Anti-sex disambiguation.

General forms. Related topics. Main article: Witch hunt. Main articles: Coverture , Marital power , Restitution of conjugal rights , Kirchberg v. Feenstra , and Marriage bar. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US.

First Second Third Fourth. Variants general. Variants religious. By country. Lists and categories. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books.

See also: Gender-neutral language. Main articles: Occupational sexism and Second-generation gender bias. The practice of using first names for individuals from a profession that is predominantly female occurs in health care. Physicians are typically referred to using their last name, but nurses are referred to, even by physicians they do not know, by their first name.

According to Suzanne Gordon, a typical conversation between a physician and a nurse is: "Hello Jane. I'm Dr. Would you hand me the patient's chart? Main article: Gender pay gap. Main article: Glass ceiling. See also: Transgender inequality. See also: Feminist views on pornography.

Further information: Honor killing , Acid throwing , and Dowry death. Main article: Female genital mutilation. Main articles: Sexual assault and Post-assault treatment of sexual assault victims. Main article: War rape. Main articles: Child marriage and Forced marriage.

Further information: Dowry and Bride price. Main articles: Sex differences in education and Sexism in academia. See also: Foot binding and Burqa. Further information: List of historical sources for pink and blue as gender signifiers. Main article: Conscription and sexism. This section may have too many links to other articles , and could require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Per the Wikipedia style guidelines , please remove duplicate links, and any links that are not relevant to the context.

October Learn how and when to remove this template message. See, for example: "Sexism". New Oxford American Dictionary 3 ed. Oxford University Press. Defines sexism as "prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex".

Defines sexism as "prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls". Notes that "sexism in a society is most commonly applied against women and girls. It functions to maintain patriarchy, or male domination, through ideological and material practices of individuals, collectives, and institutions that oppress women and girls on the basis of sex or gender.

A Companion to Applied Ethics. London: Blackwell. Notes that " 'Sexism' refers to a historically and globally pervasive form of oppression against women. In O'Brien, Jodi ed. Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. Notes that "sexism usually refers to prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls".

Also states that "sexism is an ideology or practices that maintain patriarchy or male domination. In Honderich, Ted ed. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy 2 ed. Defines sexism as "thought or practice which may permeate language and which assumes women's inferiority to men". Collins Dictionary of Sociology. Harper Collins. Defines sexism as "any devaluation or denigration of women or men, but particularly women, which is embodied in institutions and social relationships.

Palgrave MacMillan. Notes that "either sex may be the object of sexist attitudes Built upon the belief that men and women are constitutionally different, sexism takes these differences as indications that men are inherently superior to women, which then is used to justify the nearly universal dominance of men in social and familial relationships, as well as politics, religion, language, law, and economics. In Kurlan, George Thomas ed. The Encyclopedia of Political Science.

CQ Press. Notes that "both men and women can experience sexism, but sexism against women is more pervasive".

Johnson, Allan G. The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology. Suggests that "the key test of whether something is sexist I specify 'male privilege' because in every known society where gender inequality exists, males are privileged over females. Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories and Politics. Notes that "although we speak of gender inequality, it is usually women who are disadvantaged relative to similarly situated men". Wortman, Camille B. The Handbook of Culture and Psychology. American Journal of Psychiatry.

SOC 5th ed. Beyond Comparison: Sex and Discrimination. New York: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved April 20, The term has legal, as well as theoretical and psychological, definitions. Psychological consequences can be more readily inferred from the latter, but both definitions are of significance. October 19, Retrieved July 20, February 16, Retrieved 12 September Sociology: A Brief Introduction 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Sociology in modules. Sociology 13th ed. Upper Saddle River, N. Kroehler, Carolyn J. Unger, Rhoda Kesler. Boston: McGraw-Hill. London: Pluto. Trumansburg, New York. Silverman Ancient Egypt. Retrieved March 2, Cengage Learning. The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory. Boston: Beacon Press. Stearns Narrator. The Teaching Company. A Casebook on Roman Family Law.

American Philological Association. Malleus Maleficarum.

anti sexist

Eighteen-year-old Omkar used to take out his anger on his younger sister Rutu. Now, his mother Kanta says, he sexist to her respectfully and calmly. He also helps much more around the house. Battling for gender equality is like fighting the current of a rushing river, says Christina Furtado, executive director of ECF.

In AFE, boys aged 13 to 17 spend 43 weeks studying education curricula designed to teach them about gender-based violence, disrupt gender norms, and make their communities more equitable anti safer for women and girls.

As the UN reports, violence against women is a worldwide scourge. In India, this violence against women came brutally to the fore when a year-old student sexist gang raped anti a city bus in Delhi, India in What followed was a deluge of stories of sexual assault, creating a kind of MeToo moment for India.

Participants shout slogans in the Dignity March in New Delhi in February ; the 10,km march sought to raise awareness of sexual violence against women Credit: Getty Images. This is why programmes like this have such an important role to play. Even so, conservative Pune, India may seem an especially unlikely place to launch a grassroots campaign for gender equality, let alone a place where teenage boys would lead the charge.

Eighteen-year-old Akshay initially joined the AFE programme in as a volunteer to conduct the sessions. He later enrolled in it himself, along with his two brothers. Since he graduated from the programme, he says, he has become a role model for other boys in the community.

Akshay, who sexist the programme back inmakes chai tea at home Credit: Chhavi Goyal. Some are sexist by the time they reach adulthood.

Alcoholism is widespread in low-income communities like theirs across India, and men who abuse alcohol are more likely to abuse their wives and harass girls. It is a problem that significantly impacts women. But both Omkar and Kanta, equipped with the knowledge to spot signs of sexual harassment and violence, feel empowered to report incidents to police and community leaders.

Omkar notes that teenage girls trust him because they know his ECF experience means he has the education sexist the compassion to help them when they feel unsafe. Omkar with his parents Raju and Kanta, who say they have seen significant changes in his behaviour since starting the programme Credit: Chhavi Goyal. He recalls overhearing a drunk man fight with, and then hit, the man's anti.

As a result, the man went to an alcohol rehabilitation counselor, drastically reduced his alcohol consumption, and, Akshay says, curbed his violent streak. Omkar is already passing his knowledge on to the younger generation. With sexist male friend, he coaches 10 boys who are too young to join the AFE programme in gender equality concepts — teaching them not to catcall girls, to help out around the house, and to speak up if they see men being abusive.

However, as boys learn how to help girls who are being harassed, they sometimes anti this lesson too seriously, says Pravin Katke, programme coordinator at Anti. While well intentioned, this overprotectiveness can lead to dominance — exactly what ECF is trying to address. In the starting stages of the programme, mentors emphasise that boys should only offer help when girls ask for it or when they are obviously in distress.

They also tell them to call authorities in extreme situations, rather than anti aggravating the situation by involving themselves. In one such situation, Akshay heard his neighbours were arranging a marriage for their underage daughter though the minimum legal age to marry for girls in India is 18, child marriage is still sexist.

Program H participants are between ages 10 and 24, and meet weekly for four months in community spaces such as schools; as at ECF, the groups are small, averaging 12 participants, and are facilitated by young men in their 20s.

Promundo encourages boys to first change their behaviours in the safe space of the classroom, then to implement these changes in public. Still, grassroots gender activism has a precarious hold, especially in communities where traditional gender norms can be deeply entrenched.

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Promundo classes address the social taboo of men doing chores, which resulted in one man sweeping the floors in his house. His wife was pleased, but noticed he would only sweep inside, not in the backyard — he was still afraid other men would see and make fun of him. Protestors call for the end of the harassment of city bus passengers in Bangalore, where a study found sexist of female passengers face regular violence Credit: Getty Images.

To address this, ECF is revamping its curriculum for the later, action-oriented stages of its programme, and Promundo is working to implement change at an institutional level in schools and healthcare facilities by partnering with these institutions to incorporate Program H curriculum there.

Anti identifying the root causes of gender-inequitable anti and implementing solutions at both an individual and community level, boys can learn to advocate for not only girls and women, but also for themselves. As ECF and Promundo have shown, tailoring programmes to meet specific community needs, then adapting the curriculum for a broader audience, can have far-reaching impacts. Read more. Open share tools.

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The paper looks at the sexual behaviour of anti-sexist men as this is presented in writing, in discussion, and in personal experience of them. It shows that. Towards anti-sexist and anti-racist schooling*. AVTAR BRAH, ROSEMARY DEEM. INTRODUCTION. The existence of racism and sexism in schools has become.

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